Engineering Chemistry is designed as a textbook for first year undergraduate engineering students. Besides covering the revised AICTE syllabus, it fulfils the syllabus requirements of universities across India. Divided into two parts, the book provides a comprehensive discussion of all relevant and important topics related to basic and applied chemistry.
The book is divided into two parts-part 1 covers core chemistry topics in 12 chapters and includes chapters on atomic and molecular structures, periodic properties, thermodynamics, chemical equilibrium, and phase rule. Part 2 covers applied chemistry topics such as water chemistry, corrosion, metals and alloys, polymers, engineering materials, and environmental and green chemistry.
The concepts are explained using numerous diagrams and solved examples. The chapter-end pedagogy includes summary, glossary, MCQs, and review questions and numerical problems.
Part A- Basic Chemistry
1. Atomic and Molecular structure
- Structure of Atom - An Overview.
- Dual nature of atom.
de Broglie equation and derivation.
Davisson and Germer experimental evidence of electron waves.
- Heisenberg's Uncertainty principle.
- Schrodinger's Wave Equation.
Physical significance of Wave function.
Quantum Mechanical Model of Hydrogen Atom.
Particle in a 1- dimensional box (Application of Schrodinger Equation)
Pi molecular orbitals of 1,3-butadiene and benzene.
- Shapes of atomic orbitals and probability distribution.
- Applications of Schrodinger equation:
Conjugated molecules (butadiene and benzene).
- Molecular Orbitals in homonuclear diatomic molecules.
- Molecular Orbitals in heteronuclear diatomic molecules.
- Metallic Bonding: Free electron theory.
- Band theory of solids, role of doping on band structures
- Concept of Aromaticity (Huckel's Rule).
2. Periodic Properties and Chemical Bonding
- General features of Modern periodic table
- Classification of elements.
- Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements: Atomic Size, Ionization energy, Electron affinity,
- Electronegativity, Oxidation states, Melting and boiling points, Metallic character
- Hard and soft acids and bases
- Hybridization and molecular geometries (sp, sp2, sp3)
3. Thermodynamics and Chemical Equilibrium
- Concepts of thermodynamics
- First law of thermodynamics
- Applications of first law to different processes
- Heat capacity of a system
- Thermochemistry laws: Enthalpy of formation
- Kirchoff's equation
- Joule-Thomson effect
- Need for Second law of thermodynamics
- Gibbs-Helmholtz equation
- Claperon-Clausius equation
- Third law of thermodynamics
- Intermolecular forces: Ionic, dipole, van Der Waals interactions, van Der Waals equation of state for real gases and critical phenomena.
- Introduction to Chemical Equilibrium
- Law of Mass Action
- Equilibrium and Thermodynamics
- Le-Chatelier-Braun Principle
- Chemical Potential of Multicomponent Systems
- Van't Hoff Reaction Isotherm and Equations
4. Phase Rule
- Gibbs phase rule
- Terms involved in Gibbs phase rule.
- Derivation of Gibb's phase rule.
- Condensed phase rule.
- Applications of Phase Rule.
- Limitations of Phase Rule.
- Basic of Electrochemistry, galvanic cells, reversible and irreversible cells.
- Electrode potential, cell potentials.
- Electrochemical and galvanic series.
- Reference electrodes (Hydrogen and Calomel).
- Concentration cells.
- Batteries: Basics of battery.
- Construction and working of Ni-Cd, Ni-Metal hydride, Li-ion, Li-MnO2.
- Fuel cells: Types, working of fuel cells, applications.
- Numerical problems based on emf, galvanic and concentration cells.
6. Chemical Kinetics
- Rate of reaction
- Types of chemical reactions
- Factors affecting rate of reaction
- Order of a reaction
- Rate equations and characteristics of first and second order reactions
- Potential energy surfaces
7. Surface Chemistry
- Types of adsorption
- Adsorption isotherms (Freundlich, Langmuir and BET)
- Applications of adsorption
- Characteristics of catalytic reactions
- Homogeneous and Heterogeneous catalysis
- Catalytic promoters
- Catalytic poisons
- Adsorption theory of heterogeneous catalysis
- Enzyme catalysis
- Applications of catalysis in industry
- Colloidal solutions, emulsions, micelles.
8. Solid State Chemistry
- Laws of Crystallography
- Elements of symmetry, lattice planes, unit cell, Weiss and Miller indices.
- Characteristics of simple cubic, FCC and BCC systems.
- Crystal planes and interplanar distances.
- Bragg's reflection method of X-ray analysis.
- Determination of crystal structure of NaCl.
- Determination of Avogadro's number
- Imperfections in Atomic packings (Frenkel, Schottky defects).
9. Coordination Chemistry and Organometallic Compounds
- Coordination compounds terminology
- Coordination compounds theories
- Factors affecting the formation and stability of Coordination compounds
- Nomenclature of Coordination compounds
- Isomerism in Coordination compounds
- Coordination number and Geometry
- Crystal field theory
- Organometallic Compounds
- Energy level diagrams for transition metal ions and their magnetic properties
- Introduction, Classification and Nomenclature, Characteristics of organometallic compounds
- Preparation methods
- EAN or 18-electron rule
- Grignard reagent
- Applications of organometallic reagents in catalysis
10. Organic Reactions and Synthesis of Drug Molecules
- Reactivity of organic molecules, factors influencing acidity, basicity, and nucleophilicity of molecules.
- Kinetic vs. thermodynamic control of reactions.
- Strategies for synthesis of organic compounds.
- Reactive intermediates: carbocations, carbanions, radicals, carbenes.
- Substitution, elimination, rearrangement reactions with mechanism.
- Role of solvents in chemical reactions.
- Synthesis of common drug molecule (Aspirin)
- Representation of 3-D structures, structural isomers and stereoisomers.
- Symmetry and chirality
- Optical activity
- Enantiomers and Diastereomers
- Stereodescriptors- E-Z and R-S nomenclature
- Racemates and their resolution.
- Absolute configuration and conformational analysis of cyclic and acyclic systems.
12. Instrumental Method of Analysis
- EMR, UV-VIS, selection rules, Fluorescence and its application in medicine
- Molecular spectrometry
- IR spectroscopy
- NMR spectrometry
- Mass spectrometry
- Thermal Analysis
- TGA, DTA
- Electron Microscopy
- Surface characterization using XRD (diffraction)
- Microscopic techniques (STM, AFM)
- Sensors, Lab-on-a chip
Part B- Applied Chemistry
13. Water Chemistry
- Sources and impurities in water
- Disadvantages of using hard water
- Scales and sludge problems in boilers
- Boiler Corrosion
- Hardness of water and its determination by EDTA method
- Softening of water
- Lime-soda process
- Zeolite (or permutit) process
- Deionization of water Ion Exchange process
- Sterilization of water
- UV radiation
- Desalination by reverse osmosis
- Dissolved Oxygen
- Numerical problems related to hardness, EDTA method, lime soda process, zeolite, ion-exchange, BOD and COD
- Dry or Chemical Corrosion
- Wet or Electrochemical corrosion
- Types of Electrochemical Corrosion
Galvanic cell corrosion
Concentration cell corrosion
- Factors affecting the rate of corrosion
- Corrosion Control
Material selection and proper design.
- Cathodic and anodic protection methods.
- Metallic coatings
- Metal cladding
- Metal spraying
- Organic coatings
15. Metals and Alloys
- Use of free energy changes in metallurgy through Ellingham diagrams.
- One Component Water System (H2O).
- Lead-Silver (Pb- Ag) eutectic system.
- Zn-Mg system (congruent melting points).
- NaCl-Water system (incongruent melting points).
- Iron-Carbon system
- Classification of alloys.
- Ferrous alloys and Non-Ferrous alloys (Cu, Al, Pb)
- Powder Metallurgy
- Metal ceramic powders.
- Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs).
- Types of polymerization
- Methods of polymerization
- Thermoplastic and Thermosetting polymers
- Compounding of plastics (Ingredients for compounding)
- Fabrication of plastics
- Compression moulding
- Injection moulding
- Transfer moulding
- Extrusion moulding
- Preparation, properties and uses of commercial plastics
- Phenol formaldehyde resins
- Urea formaldehyde resins
- Viscoelasticity of polymers
- Melting and glass transition temperatures
- Natural rubbers
- Vulcanization of rubber
- Preparation, properties and uses of commercial rubbers
- Polyurethane rubber
- Specialty polymers
- Self-healing polymers
- Conducting polymers
- Polymers in medicine and surgery applications
- Biodegradable polymers
17. Important Engineering Materials:
- Cement and Concrete
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete
Plaster of Paris
Classification of Adhesives
Mechanism of adhesion
Application of adhesives
Classification of abrasives
- Properties of Refractory Materials
- Manufacture of Refractories
- Types of Refractory Brick Materials
- Liquid crystals
- Liquid crystal behavior and chemical structure
- Classification of Nanomaterials
- Structural features and properties of nanomaterials
Nanowires and Nanocones
- Applications of Nanomaterials
- Composite Materials
Classification of composite materials
Applications of composite materials
Nanocomposites Particle - reinforced composites
Manufacture of Glass
Properties of Ceramics
Classification of Ceramics
Some Common Ceramics
Applications of Ceramic Materials
- Mechanism of lubrication
Extreme pressure lubrication
- Classification of lubricants
- Liquid lubricants
- Gaseous lubricants
- Properties of lubricants
Viscosity and viscosity index
Flash and fire points
Cloud and pour points
Other Significant properties
- Selection of lubricating oil
- Biodegradable lubricants.
- Numerical problems based on saponification and acid values of lubricating oils
19. Energy Resources
- Renewable and non-renewable sources
- Solar energy
- Tidal energy
- Geothermal energy
- Wind energy
- Nuclear energy
20. Fuels and Combustion
- Introduction, Classification of fuels
- Characteristics of a good fuel
- Calorific value of a fuel
Gross and Net Calorific values (Dulong's Formula)
Determination of calorific value using bomb calorimeter
Determination of calorific value using Junkers calorimeter
- Solid Fuel analysis of coal
- Liquid Fuels
Crude petroleum oil
Composition and classification of petroleum oil
Mining of crude oil
Refining of crude oil
- Refining and Reforming of petrol
Knocking in IC engines
Antiknocking agents (TEL and MTBE)
Octane number of petrol, Cetane number of diesel
- Power Alcohol
- Numerical problems based on calorific values
Bomb and Junkers calorimetry
Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal
Calculations for requirement of oxygen and air
Flue gas analysis
Characteristics of Explosives
Manufacture of Important Explosives
Characteristics of a Good Propellant
Classification of propellants
21. Pollution and Its control
- Air pollution
- Water pollution
- Noise pollution
- Radioactive pollution, optimum levels of pollution
- Greenhouse effect and global warming
- Solid waste treatment of NPK
22. Environmental and Green Chemistry
- Introduction, Green Chemistry, Need and significance of Green Chemistry
- Principles of Green chemistry
Numerical problems on atom economy
Conventional and green methods of preparing Adipic acid, Indigo, Ibuprofen, and Carbaryl
- Industrial applications of green chemistry
- Green solvents (ionic liquids and supercritical fluids)
- Products from natural materials
- E-waste management
Classification and sources of e-waste
Hazardous e-waste disposal techniques
Eco-friendly methods to manage e-waste
Appendix A- EXPERIMENTS
1. Total hardness estimation in a water sample.
2. Chloride content in water sample.
3. Chemical oscillations- Iodine clock reaction.
4. Adsorption of acetic acid on charcoal.
5. Chemical analysis of salt.
6. Thin layer chromatography.
7. Melting point and /or glass transition temperature of a polymer.
8. Viscosity of oil by Redwood Viscometer.
9. Saponification/Acid value of an oil.
10. Molecular weight determination of polymers by Oswald Viscometer.
11. Flash point and fire point of a lubricating oil.
12. Estimation of percentage moisture and ash in coal.
13. Demonstration of galvanic cell corrosion (Daniel cell).
14. Synthesis of Aspirin.
15. Partition coefficient of substance between two immiscible liquids.
16. Surface tension determination using stalagmometer.
17. Ion-exchange method for water hardness removal.
18. Cell constant and conductance of soluti ons using conductometer.
19. EMF determination using potentiometer.
20. Determination of rate constant of a reaction.