The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics: 3-Volume Set
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics: 3-Volume Set
  • The breadth of coverage allows diverse exploration of how civil-miltary relations function around the globe
  • Articles include both country-specific studies as well as general ones that compare and contrast a wide range of behavior
  • Contributors to the volume represent a global mix of top scholars in the field.
  • Cases are evenly divided between those that examine states in which the military accepts political subordination and those that cover states in which they do not always do so.

People tend to think of civil-military relationships in binary terms. Either the military takes its orders from its usually civilian government leaders without any resistance or the military calls the governmental shots by taking over the government when it is displeased with civilian behavior. Reality, of course, is much different. There is an incredible variety of civil-military relationships around the globe, ranging between the continuum end points of full obedience to governmental authority and military coups d'etat. It is ordinarily difficult to tap into that variety easily because edited collections of country studies are constrained by space limitations to covering a handful of representative or interesting political systems. That constraint often leads to focusing on a few well known cases - normally, ones involving intermittent military rule. Other examinations limit themselves to more in-depth analysis of single cases. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics is the first of its kind in the sense that it contains 92 chapters encompassing roughly a hundred cases examining the evolution of civil-military relationships over time. Approximately half of the cases encompass states in which the military more or less accepts political subordination. In the other half, they either have refused to be subordinated or become politically insubordinate intermittently. Authors were recruited from around the world to address these issues from a variety of perspectives. In addition, another 32 chapters examine topical questions such as what factors encourage military coups, what are the consequences of military rule, how do the military vote, or whether military expenditures boost economic growth.


Afghanistan: Martial Society Without Military Rule (Amin Tarzi)
Albania: Civil-Military Relations in the Post-Cold War Era (Gerassimos Karabelias)
Algeria: Military Past as Prologue (Paul E. Lenze, Jr.)
Arab Gulf States: Expanding Roles for the Military (Eleonora Ardemagni)
Argentina: The Journey from Military Intervention to Subordination (David Pion-Berlin)
Armies in Politics: The Domestic Determinants of Military Coup Behavior (Ekim Arbatli)
Australia: Expanding and Applying the Field of Civil-Military Relations (Ben Wadham and Willem de Lint)

Bahrain: The Army and the Dynamics of State-Society Relations (Laurence Louër)
The Bangladesh Army: What It Costs to Remain Apolitical (Smruti S. Pattanaik)
Benin and Togo: Loyalist Stacking and Rival Security Forces (Julien Morency-Laflamme)
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Unifying Armed Forces in a Divided State (Danijela Dudley)
Botswana: The Evolution and Influence of the Military in Politics (David Sebudubudu)
Burkina Faso: Military Responses to Popular Pressures (Daniel Eizenga)
Burundi: Assessing Military Institutional Reforms Post-Arusha (Astrid Jamar and Gerard Birantamije)

Cambodia: Armed Forces Under Personalized Control (Paul W. Chambers)
Cameroon: The Military and Autocratic Stability (Kristen A. Harkness)
Canada: Very "Civil" Military Relations (Joel J. Sokolsky)
Central African Republic: Coups, Mutinies, and Civil War (Timothy Stapleton)
Chad: Armed Presidents and Politics (Ketil Hansen)
Chile: Military and Politics in the 20th Century (Brian Loveman)
China: Party-Army Relations Past and Present (Sofia K. Ledberg)
“Civil and Military” as a Constitutive Categorization of the Study of War and Politics (Jan Angstrom and Sofia K. Ledberg)
Colombia: Civilian Control and Militarized Repression (William Aviles)
Congo-Kinshasa: The Military in the State-Building Process (Emizet F. Kisangani)
Conscription and the Politics of Military Recruitment (Nathan W. Toronto and Lindsay P. Cohn)
Conscription, Citizenship, and Democracy (Tony Ingesson)
The Consequences of Military Rule: Juntas Versus Strongmen (Barbara Geddes)
The Control-Effectiveness Framework of Civil-Military Relations (Florina Cristiana Matei and Carolyn Halladay)
Costa Rica: Demilitarization and Democratization (John A. Booth)
Côte d'Ivoire: The Military, Ruling Elites, and Political Power (Simon A. Akindes)
Counterbalancing and Coups d'État (Erica De Bruin)
Coup-Proofing in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) Region (Derek Lutterbeck)
Coup-Proofing Vulnerable Presidencies in Latin America (Eric Rittinger)
The Cromwellian Army's Political Role During the Interregnum (Henry Reece)
Cuba: The Military and Politics (Jorge I. Domínguez)
The Czech Republic: The Military and Politics (Zdenek Kríz and Oldrich Krpec)

Demobilization Challenges After Armed Conflict (Margit Bussmann)
Domestic and International Constituencies in Military Coups (Ömer Aslan)
The Dominican Republic: From Military Rule to Democracy (Ellen Tillman)

Ecuador: Military Autonomy Under Democratic Rule (Maiah Jaskoski)
Egypt and Tunisia: Political Control of the Military Under Mubarak and Ben Ali (Risa A. Brooks)
El Salvador: The Consolidation and Collapse of Military Domination (William D. Stanley)
Eritrea: The Everyday Politics of Mass Militarization (Jennifer Riggan)
Ethiopia: The Role of the Military in the Political Order (Alem Kebede)
Ethnic Inequality and Coups d'État (Cristina Bodea and Christian Houle)

Fiji: The Militarization of Politics in a Small-Island Developing State (Vijay Naidu)
Foreign Military Training and Coups d'État (Jesse Dillon Savage)
France: Civil-Military Relations in the Antiterrorist Frame (Grégory Daho)

Gabon: An Uneasy Civil-Military Concord (Olaf Bachmann)
Gender and the Military in Western Democracies (Helena Carreiras)
Georgia: Warlords, Generals, and Politicians (David Darchiashvili and Stephen Jones)
Germany: An Army in a Democracy in an Epoch of Extremes (Donald Abenheim and Carolyn Halladay)
Ghana: The Military in Transition From Praetorianism to Democratic Control (Eboe Hutchful, Ben Kunbour, and Humphrey Asamoah Agyekum)
Greece: From Overt Military Activism to Democratic Normality (Dimitris Tsarouhas)
Guatemala: The Military in Politics (Anita Isaacs and Rachel A. Schwartz)
Guinea: The History of the Military as a Political Actor (Paul Clarke)

Haiti: Deconstructing Military Entanglements in Politics (Michel S. Laguerre)
Honduras: All-Purpose Militarization (Kristina Mani)
Hungary: A Historically Apolitical Military (Tamás Csiki Varga and András Rácz)

India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh: Civil-Military Relations (Sumit Ganguly)
India: Soldier-Civilian Alliance in a Democratic Context (Anshu N. Chatterjee)
Indonesia: The Military's Transformation From Praetorian Ruler to Presidential Coalition Partner (Marcus Mietzner)
Interests, Institutions, and Defense Spending (Justin Conrad and Mark Souva)
The International Fraternity of the Uniform: Implications for Civil-Military Relations (Joel J. Sokolsky)
Iran: Imperial and Republican Civil-Military Relations (Ahmed S. Hashim)
Iraq: Civil-Military Relations from the Monarchy to the Republics (Ahmed S. Hashim)
Israel: A Politically Monitored Military in a Militarized Society (Yagil Levy)
Italy: The Military in Politics (Nicola Labanca)

Japan: The Culture of Insubordination in the Army, 1868-1945 (Danny Orbach)
Jordan: The Military and Politics in the Hashemite Kingdom (Curtis R. Ryan)

Kenya: The King's Shadow Army (Henrik Laugesen)

Leaders, Generals, Juntas: The Military in Politics and International Conflict Initiation (Peter White)
Lebanon: A Military in Politics in a Divided Society (Oren Barak)

Macedonia: Troublesome Relations Among Politics, Ethnicity, and the Military (Biljana Vankovska)
Madagascar: The Military in Politics (Juvence F. Ramasy)
The Maldives: The Changing Dynamics of Civil-Military Relations (Prashant Hosur Suhas and Vasabjit Banerjee)
Mali: The Hot and Cold Relationship Between Military Intervention and Democratic Consolidation (Florina Cristiana Matei)
Mauritania: The Institutionalization of Military Supremacy (Boubacar N'Diaye)
Militaries' Organizational Cultures in a Globalizing World (Joseph Soeters)
Military and Absentee Voting in the United States: History and Modern Practice (Donald S. Inbody)
Military Coups d'État and Their Causes (Fabrice Lehoucq)
Military Expenditures and Economic Growth (J. Paul Dunne and Nan Tian)
Military-Industrial Complexes and Their Variations (Marc R. DeVore)
Military Learning and Evolutions in Warfare in the Modern Era (Nathan W. Toronto)
Military Politics and Democratic Transition: Combining Rationality, Culture, and Structure (Hicham Bou Nassif)
Military, Security, and Politics in Regime Change: Explaining the Power Triangle (Hazem Kandil)
Myanmar: Civil-Military Relations in a Tutelary Regime (Marco Bünte)

Nepal: The Role of the Military in Politics, 1990-2020 (Bishnu Raj Upreti)
Niger: Armed Force Politics and Counterterrorism (Virginie Baudais)
North Korea: The Korean People's Army in the Shadow of Its Supreme Leader (Seongji Woo)

Outsourcing War and Security (Ori Swed and Daniel Burland)

Pakistan: Persistent Praetorianism (Aqil Shah)
The Palestinian Military: Two Militaries, Not One (Hillel Frisch)
Papua New Guinea: Volatile but Coupless (R. J. May)
The Philippines: Civil-Military Relations, from Marcos to Duterte (Terence Lee)

The Republic of the Congo: The Colonial Origins of Military Rule (Joshua Shaw and Brett Carter)
Risk Assessment: Prospect Theory and Civil-Military Affairs (Gregory Winger)
Romania: Civil-Military Relations in the Modern Age (Marian Zulean)
Rwanda: Civil-Military Relations (Marco Jowell)

Saudi Arabia: The Role of the Military in Politics (Ayman Al-Yassini)
Serbia's Civil-Military Relations (Filip Ejdus)
Sierra Leone: Military Coups and Dictatorships (Jimmy D. Kandeh)
Slovakia: Creating and Transforming Civil-Military Relations (Matej Navrátil and Michal Onderco)
South Korea: The Journey Toward Civilian and Democratic Control Over the Military (Carl J. Saxer)
Spain: The Long Road From an Interventionist Army to Democratic and Modern Armed Forces (Rafa Martínez and Fernando J. Padilla Angulo)
Sri Lanka's Military: From Ceremonial to Professional (Ayesha Siddiqa)
Sudan: Soldiers and Civilians, 1958-2019 (Peter Woodward)
Suriname: The National Army in Politics (Dirk Kruijt)
Syria: Coup Politics, Authoritarian Regimes, and Savage War (Philippe Droz-Vincent)

Tanzania: Civil-Military Relations and Nationalism (Daniel G. Zirker)
Territorial Threats and Military Dictatorships (Nam Kyu Kim)
Thailand: Camouflaged Khakistocracy in Civil-Military Relations (Paul W. Chambers)
Turkey: The Rise and Fall of the Influence of the Military in Politics (Acar Kutay)

Uganda: A Perspective on Politico-Military Fusion (Jude Kagoro)
Ukraine: Democratizing Civil-Military Relations in the Midst of Conflict (Marybeth P. Ulrich)
The United Kingdom: Increasingly Fractious Civil-Military Relations (Andrew M. Dorman)
The United States: Politicians, Partisans, and Military Professionals (Peter Feaver and Damon Coletta)
Uruguay: No Country for a Military? (David Altman and Nicole Jenne)
The U.S. Civil-Military Relations Gap and the Erosion of Historical Democratic Norms (Marybeth P. Ulrich)
The U.S. Politico-Military-Industrial Complex (John A. Alic)

Valkyrie: The Anti-Nazi Underground in the Wehrmacht, 1938-1945 (Danny Orbach)
Venezuela: Coup-Proofing From Pérez Jiménez to Maduro (Deborah L. Norden)

West Africa: Civil-Military Relations From a Colonial Perspective (Naila Salihu)

Zimbabwe: A History of the Military in Politics, 1980-2019 (Martin Revayi Rupiya)


Editor in Chief: William R. Thompson and Hicham Bou Nassif

William R. Thompson is Distinguished Professor and Rogers Professor of Political Science Emeritus at Indiana University, Bloomington. He has been an Editor-in-Chief of International Studies Quarterly and a President of the International Studies Association. He is Editor-in-Chief of the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics and the author or editor of roughly 40 books.
Hicham Bou Nassif is an Associate Professor of Government at Claremont McKenna College. He has published several articles on military politics. His first book, Endgames, probes the armed forces' reaction to the 2011 Arab uprisings (Cambridge University Press, 2021).
Donald Abenheim, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School
Simon A. Akindes, Department of Politics, Philosophy, and Law, University of Wisconsin, Parkside
John Alic, School for the Future of Innovation in Society, Arizona State University
David Altman, Department of Political Science, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
Ayman Al-Yassini, Canadian Race Relations Foundation
Jan Angstrom, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership, Swedish Defence University
Ekim Arbatli, Department of Politics and Governance, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Eleonora Ardemagni, Italian Institute for International Political Studies
Humphrey Asamoah Agyekum, Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen
Ömer Aslan, Department of International Relations, Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University
William Aviles, Department of Political Science, University of Nebraska at Kearney
Olaf Bachmann, African Leadership Centre, King's College London
Vasabjit Banerjee, Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Mississippi State University
Oren Barak, Department of Political Science, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Virginie Baudais, Sahel-West African Program, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Gerard Birantamije, Department of Political Science, Université Libre de Bruxelles
Cristina Bodea, Department of Political Science, Michigan State University
John A. Booth, Department of Political Science, University of North Texas
Hicham Bou Nassif, Department of Government, Claremont McKenna College
Risa A. Brooks, Allis Chalmers Associate Professor of Political Science, Marquette University
Marco Bünte, Institute of Political Science, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
Daniel Burland, Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Saint Mary
Margit Bussmann, University of Greifswald, Department of Political Science
Helena Carreiras, Department of Sociology, Public Policy, and Research Methodology, Lisbon University Institute
Brett L. Carter, Department of Political Science and International Relations, University of Southern California
Paul W. Chambers, Center of ASEAN Community Studies, Naresuan University
Anshu N. Chatterjee, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School
Paul Clarke, Truman National Security Project
Lindsay P. Cohn, Department of National Security Affairs, U.S. Naval War College
Damon Coletta, Department of Political Science, United States Air Force Academy
Justin Conrad, Center for International Trade and Security, University of Georgia
Tamás Csiki Varga, Research Fellow, Institute for Strategic and Defense Studies, National University of Public Service
Grégory Daho, Department of Political Science, Universite Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne
David Darchiashvili, School of Arts and Sciences, Ilia State University
Erica De Bruin, Department of Government, Hamilton College
Willem de Lint, Department of Criminal Justice, Flinders University
Marc R. DeVore, School of International Relations, University of St Andrews
Jesse Dillon Savage, Department of Political Science, Trinity College, University of Dublin
Jorge I. Domínguez, Independent Scholar
Andrew M. Dorman, Professor of International Security, King's College London
Philippe Droz-Vincent, Depratment of Political Science and International Relations, Middle East Institute
Danijela Dudley, Department of Political Science, San Jose State University
J. Paul Dunne, School of Economics, University of Cape Town
Daniel Eizenga, Africa Center for Strategic Studies
Filip Ejdus, University of Belgrade, Department of Political Science
Peter Feaver, Department of Political Science, Duke University
Hillel Frisch, Department of Political Science, Bar-Ilan University
Sumit Ganguly, Department of Political Science, Indiana University, Bloomington
Barbara Geddes, Department of Political Science, University of California Los Angeles
Carolyn Halladay, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School
Ketil Hansen, Department of Education and Sports Science, University of Stavanger
Kristen A. Harkness, School of International Relations, University of St Andrews
Ahmed S. Hashim, Department of Strategic Studies, Deakin University
Prashant Hosur Suhas, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Clarkson University
Christian Houle, Department of Political Science, Michigan State University
Eboe Hutchful, Department of African American Studies, Wayne State University
Anita Isaacs, Department of Political Science, Haverford College
Donald S. Inbody, Department of Political Science, Texas State University
Tony Ingesson, Department of Political Science, Lund University
Astrid Jamar, Development Policy and Practice, The Open University
Maiah Jaskoski, Department of Politics and International Affairs, Northern Arizona University
Nicole Jenne. Department of Political Science, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
Stephen Jones, Department of Russian and Eurasian Studies, Mount Holyoke College
Marco Jowell, Centre for African Studies, SOAS University of London
Jude Kagoro, Institude for Intercultural and International Studies, University of Bremen
Jimmy D. Kandeh, Department of Political Science, University of Richmond
Hazem Kandil, Department of Political Sociology, University of Cambridge
Gerassimos Karabelias, Department of Sociology, Panteion University of Political and Social Sciences
Alem Kebede, Department of Sociology, California State University, Bakersfield
Emizet F. Kisangani, Department of Political Science, Kansas State University
Zdenek Kriz, Department of International Relations and European Studies, Masaryk University
Oldrich Krpec, Department of International Relations and European Studies, Masaryk University
Dirk Kruijt, Department of Cultural Anthropology, Utrecht University; Research Fellow, Instituto Universitário Lisboa; Centre for Military Studies, Stellenbosch University
Ben Kunbour, Lecturer, University of Ghana Law School
Nam Kyu Kim, Department of Political Science and International Relations, Korea University
Acar Kutay, Visiting Associate Professor at Southwest University of Political Science and Law (SWUPL), Chongqing, China
Nicola Labanca, Department of Historical Sciences and Cultural Heritage, University of Siena
Michel S. Laguerre, Berkeley Center for Globalization and Information Technology, University of California Berkeley
Henrik Laugesen, Institute for Strategy, Royal Danish Defence College
Sofia K. Ledberg, Department of Security, Strategy, and Leadership, Swedish Defence University
Terence Lee, Department of Political Science, National University of Singapore
Fabrice Lehoucq, Department of Political Science, University of North Carolina at Greenboro
Paul E. Lenze, Jr., Department of Politics and International Affairs, Northern Arizona
Yagil Levy, Department of Sociology, Political Science and Communication, The Open University of Israel
Laurence Louër, Department of Political Science, Sciences Po
Brian Loveman, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, San Diego State University
Derek Lutterbeck, Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, University of Malta
Kristina Mani, Department of Politics, Oberlin College
Sabine Mannitz, Member of the Executive Board and Head of Research Department, Peace Research Institute Frankfurt
Rafa Martínez, Department of Political Science, University of Barcelona
Florina Cristiana Matei, Center for Homeland Defense and Security, Naval Postgraduate School
R.J. May, Emeritus Fellow, Australian National University
Marcus Mietzner, Department of Political & Social Change, Australian National University
Julien Morency-Laflamme, Department of History, Economics, and Political Science, John Abbott College
Vijay Naidu, School of Government, Development, and International Affairs, The University of the South Pacific
Matej Navrátil, Institute of Political Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, and Comenius University in Bratislava
Boubacar N'Diaye, Department of Political Science, College of Wooster
Deborah L. Norden, Department of Political Science, Whittier College
Michal Onderco, Department of Public Administration and Sociology, Erasmus University Rotterdam
Danny Orbach, Department of Asian Studies, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Fernando J. Padilla Angulo, Department of Hispanic, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, University of Bristol
Smruti S. Pattanaik, Research Fellow, Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses
David Pion-Berlin, Department of Political Science, University of California, Riverside
András Rácz, Senior Research Fellow, German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP)
Juvence F. Ramasy, Department of Law and Political Science, University of Toamasina
Henry Reece, Emeritus Fellow, Jesus College, Oxford University
Jennifer Riggan, Department of Historical and Political Studies, Arcadia University
Eric Rittinger, Department of Political Science, Salisbury University
Martin Revayi Rupiya, Institute of African Renaissance Studies, University of South Africa
Curtis R. Ryan, Department of Government and Justice Studies, Appalachian State University
Naila Salihu, Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Center
Carl J. Saxer, Division of International Studies, Hanyang University
Rachel A. Schwartz, Center for Inter-American Policy and Research (CIPR), Tulane University
David Sebudubudu, Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Botswana
Joshua Shaw, Department of Political Science and International Relations, University of Southern California
Aqil Shah, Department of International and Area Studies, University of Oklahoma
Ayesha Siddiqa , Centre for International Studies and Diplomacy, SOAS University of London
Joseph Soeters, Department of Organization Studies, Tilburg University
Joel J. Sokolsky, Department of Political Studies, Queen's University
Mark Souva, Department of Political Science, Florida State University
William D. Stanley, Department of Political Science, University of New Mexico
Timothy Stapleton, Department of History, University of Calgary
Ori Swed, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, Texas Tech University
Amin Tarzi, Director of Middle East Studies, Marine Corps University
Nan Tian, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Ellen Tillman, Department of History, Texas State University
Nathan W. Toronto, Program on Civil-Military Relations in Arab States, Carnegie Middle East Center
Dimitris Tsarouhas, Department of International Relations, Bilkent University
Marybeth P. Ulrich, Department of National Security and Strategy, United States Army War College
Bishnu Raj Upreti, Nepal Center for Contemporary Research
Biljana Vankovska, Institute of Security, Defense, and Peace, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University
Ben Wadham, College of Education, Pscyhology and Social Work, Flinders University
Peter White, Department of Political Science, Auburn University
Gregory Winger, Department of Political Science, University of Cincinnati
Seongji Woo, College of International Studies, Kyung Hee University
Peter Woodward, Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Reading
Daniel G. Zirker, Department of Social Sciences, University of Waikato
Marian Zulean, Faculty of Public Administration and Business, University of Bucharest


ISBN : 9780190921514

William R. Thompson; Hicham Bou Nassif
2880 ページ
178 x 254 mm





The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics: 3-Volume Set

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics: 3-Volume Set

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics: 3-Volume Set