OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

By The People: Debating American Government (4th edition)

ISBN : 9780190928711

参考価格(税込): 
¥15,389
著者: 
James A. Morone; Rogan Kersh
ページ
720 ページ
フォーマット
Paperback
サイズ
216 x 279 mm
刊行日
2019年02月
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印刷

By the People: Debating American Government, Comprehensive Fourth Edition, reflects the dynamism of American government and politics with superior teaching and learning tools that prepare students to ENGAGE, THINK, and DEBATE now more than ever before. Using a storytelling approach that weaves commentary together with historical context, By the People: Debating American Government explores the themes and ideas that drive the great debates in American government and politics. It introduces students to big questions like "Who governs?" "How does our system of government work?" "What does government do?" and "Who are we?" By challenging students with these questions, the text encourages them to think about, engage with, and debate the merits of U.S. government and politics.

目次: 

About the Authors xviii
Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxvii
PART I IDEAS AND RIGHTS
1 The Spirit of American Politics
Who Governs?
How Does American Politics Work?
Ideas
Institutions
Interests
Individuals 1
History 10
What Does Government Do? 11
Context: Government in Society 11
No Big Government! 12
What Government Does 13
A Chronic Problem 14
The Hidden Government 14
COMPARING NATIONS 1.1: U.S. Taxpayers Less Burdened Than
The Best of Government 15
Who Are We? 17
COMPARING NATIONS 1.2
INFO/DATA Changing Face of America: Percentage of Total U.S. Population by Race and Ethnicity, 1960-2060 19
WHAT DO YOU THINK? GETTING ENGAGED IN POLITICS-OR NOT 18
Conclusion: Your Turn 20
Chapter Summary 20
Key Terms
Study Questions 21
2 The Ideas That Shape America 22
A Nation of Ideas 23
BY THE NUMBERS American Ideas 24
Liberty 25
The Land of the Free 26
The Two Sides of Liberty 26
WHAT DO YOU THINK? NEGATIVE VERSUS POSITIVE LIBERTY 27
The Idea of Freedom Is Always Changing 27
Self-Rule 29
One Side of Self-Rule: Democracy 29
Another Side of Self-Rule: A Republic 30
A Mixed System 31
Limited Government 32
The Origins of Limited Government 32
And Yet . . . the United States keeps Demanding More Government 33
Limits on Government Action 34
When Ideas Clash: Self-Rule and Limited Government 35
WHAT DO YOU THINK? SELF-RULE VERSUS LIMITED GOVERNMENT 36
Individualism 36
Community Versus Individualism 37
COMPARING NATIONS 2.1: Should Government Take Care of the Poor? 38
The Roots of American Individualism: Opportunity and Discord 38
Golden Opportunity 38
Social Conflict 39
Who We Are: Individualism and Solidarity? 39
WHAT DO YOU THINK? INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS
SOLIDARITY 40
The American Dream 41
Spreading the Dream 41
Challenging the Dream 41
Is the System Tilted Toward the Wealthy? 41
COMPARING NATIONS 2.2: Social Mobility Around the World 43
Does the American Dream Promote the Wrong Values? 42
Equality 44
Three Types of Equality
Social Equality
Political Equality
INFO/DATA: Most Americans Believe There Is Opportunity to Get Ahead
Economic Equality
How Much Economic Equality Is Too Much?
Opportunity or Outcome?
Equal opportunity
Equal outcome
Religion
Still a Religious Country
So Many Religions
Politics of Religion
How Do Ideas Affect Politics?
Ideas in American Culture
Ideas in Political Institutions
Culture or Institutions?
Conclusion: Culture and Institutions, Together
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Study Questions
3 The Constitution 56
BY THE NUMBERS The Constitution 58
The Colonial Roots of the Constitution 59
COMPARING NATIONS 3.1: The U.S. Constitution in Comparative Context 59
Why the Colonists Revolted 61
The Colonial Complaint: Representation 61
The Conflict Begins with Blood on the Frontier 62
The Stamp Tax and the First Hints of Independence 63
The Townshend Acts Worsen the Conflict 63
The Boston Tea Party 64
Revolution! 64
A Long Legacy 65
The Declaration of Independence 65
The Principle: We Hold These Truths . . . 65
Grievances 67
The First American Government: The Articles of Confederation 67
Independent States 68
The National Government 68
Some Success . . . 68
. . . And Some Problems 69
WHAT DO YOU THINK? YOUR ADVICE IS NEEDED 70
Secrecy 70
The Constitutional Convention 72
1. How Much Power to the People? 72
2. National Government Versus State Government 73
3. Big States Versus Small States 74
The Virginia Plan 74
The New Jersey Plan 75
The Connecticut Compromise 75
4. The President 76
Committee or Individual? 76
The Electoral College 76
The President: Too Strong or Too Weak? 77
5. Separation of Powers 78
6. A Principle of Which We Were Ashamed 79
The Three-Fifths Compromise 79
The Slave Trade 80
Fugitive Slaves 81
The National Calamity 81
An Overview of the Constitution 82
Preamble 82
Article 1: Congress 82
WHAT DO YOU THINK? HAVE WE ACHIEVED THESE NATIONAL GOALS TODAY? 83
Article 2: The President 83
COMPARING NATIONS 3.2: The U.S. Government Is Different from Most Democracies 84
Article 3: The Courts 85
Article 4: Relations Between the States 85
Article 5: Amendments 85
Article 6: The Law of the Land 86
Article 7: Ratification 86
The Missing Articles 86
Ratification 86
The Anti-Federalists 87
The Federalists 87
Two Strong Arguments 88
A Very Close Vote 88
A Popular Surge Propels People into Politics 90
Changing the Constitution 91
The Bill of Rights 91
The Seventeen Amendments 93
The Constitution Today 93
WHAT DO YOU THINK? HOW STRICTLY SHOULD WE INTERPRET THE CONSTITUTION? 94
INFO/DATA Amend the Constitution today? On What Issue? 95
Conclusion: Does the Constitution Still Work? 96
Chapter Summary 96
Key Terms
Study Questions 97
4 Federalism and Nationalism 98
BY THE NUMBERS Federalism 101
Forging Federalism 100
Who Holds Government Authority? 103
Advantages of State-Level Policy 103
The Advantages of National Policy 104
INFO/DATA Regulatory Policies Differ By State
WHAT DO YOU THINK? PRESERVING LOCAL VALUES OR CONTINUING A TERRIBLE INJUSTICE? 105
How Federalism Works 106
The Constitution Sets the Ground Rules 106
The Constitution Empowers National Authority 107
The Constitution Protects State Authority 107
The Constitution Authorizes Shared Power 107
Dual Federalism (1789-1933) 109
Cooperative Federalism (1933-1981) 110
New Federalism 111
Progressive Federalism 112
Education 112
Healthcare 112
Issues in Federalism 113
Unfunded Mandates 113
The Problems We Face: How Government Grows 113
Drowned in the Bathtub? Reducing the Federal Government 114
On Both Sides of the Issue 114
In a Nutshell: Our Three-Dimensional Political Chess 115
Federalism in the Courts 117
Nationalism, American Style 119
The Rise of American Nationalism 119
America's Weak National Government 119
COMPARING NATIONS 4.1: Government Spending as a Proportion of Gross Domestic Product 120
Size 120
Authority 120
Independence 121
Conclusion: Who Are We? 122
Chapter Summary 122
Key Terms
Study Questions 123
5 Civil Liberties 124
The Rise of Civil Liberties 126
Civil Rights and Civil Liberties 126
BY THE NUMBERS Civil Liberties 127
The Purpose of Civil Liberties 128
The Slow Rise of Rights 128
Privacy 129
Penumbras and Emanations 129
Roe v. Wade 131
WHAT DO YOU THINK? IS THERE A RIGHT TO PRIVACY? 132
Planned Parenthood v. Casey 132
Sex Between Consenting Adults 133
Clashing Principles 133
Freedom of Religion 134
The Establishment Clause 134
Free Exercise of Religion 135
WHAT DO YOU THINK? MAY THE CHRISTIAN YOUTH CLUB MEET IN SCHOOL? 136
Freedom of Speech 137
A Preferred Position 137
Political Speech 138
COMPARING NATIONS 5.1: Civil Liberties Around the World 138
TEST YOURSELF: The Simpsons Versus the First Amendment-Which Do You Know Better? 139
Symbolic Speech 140
Limits to Free Speech: Fighting Words 140
WHAT DO YOU THINK? FREE SPEECH ON CAMPUS 141 Limited Protections: Student Speech 142
Freedom of the Press 143
Prior Restraint 143
Obscenity 144
Libel 145
The Right to Bear Arms 146
A Relic of the Revolution? 146
The Palladium of All Liberties? 146
INFO/DATA Guns on Campus 147
The Rights of the Accused 148
The Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure 148
The Fifth Amendment: Rights at Trials 150
The Sixth Amendment: The Right to Counsel 151
The Eighth Amendment: The Death Penalty 152
WHAT DO YOU THINK? END THE DEATH PENALTY? 153
Terrorism, Non-Citizens, and Civil Liberties
Contacts with Forbidden Groups
Surveillance
The Rights of Non-Citizens
Conclusion: The Dilemma of Civil Liberties 156
Chapter Summary 156
Key Terms
Study Questions 157
6 The Struggle for Civil Rights 158
BY THE NUMBERS Civil Rights 161
Winning Rights: The Political Process 160
Seven Steps to Political Equality 160
How the Courts Review Cases 162
Suspect Categories 162
Quasi-Suspect Categories 162
Nonsuspect Categories 163
Race and Civil Rights: Revolt Against Slavery 163
The Clash over Slavery 163
Abolition 164
Economics 164
Politics 164
Dred Scott v. Sandford 165
The Second American Founding: A New Birth of Freedom? 165
Freedom Fails 166
The Fight for Racial Equality 168
Two Types of Discrimination 168
The Modern Civil Rights Campaign Begins 168
The Courts 169
The Civil Rights Movement 170
Congress and the Civil Rights Act 171
Divisions in the Movement 172
The Post Civil Rights Era 173
Affirmative Action in the Workplace 173
Affirmative Action in Education 174
WHAT DO YOU THINK? HIGHER EDUCATION AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION 174
Women's Rights 175
Suffrage 175
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 177
COMPARING NATIONS 6.1: Percentage of Women in National Legislatures: Selected Countries 178
Equal Rights Amendment 179
The Courts 179
Progress for Women-But How Much? 180
Hispanics 181
Challenging Discrimination 181
The Politics of Immigration 182
Ancient Fears 182
Three Categories 182
Undocumented Immigrants 183
Language Controversy: Speak English! 184
Political Mobilization 184
Asian Americans 186
Native Americans 187
The Lost Way of Life 188
Indians and the Federal Government 188
Social Problems and Politics 189
Native Americans and the Courts 189
Groups Without Special Protection 190
People with Disabilities 190
Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 191
INFO/DATA: Laws Restricting Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
The Fight for Civil Rights Goes On 192
Voting Rights Today 192
Economic and Social Rights Today 193
Health 193
Income 193
Incarceration
Conclusion: Civil Rights . . . By the People 195
Chapter Summary 196
Key Terms
Study Questions 197
PART II POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
7 Public Opinion 198
BY THE NUMBERS Public Opinion 201
Sources of Public Opinion 200
Political Socialization 201
Parents and Friends 202
Education 202
Gender 202
Race 202
Religion 203
Life Events 203
Party 203
Self-Interest: Voting Our Pocketbooks 204
Elite Influence 204
Wars and Other Focusing Events 205
Measuring Public Opinion 206
Polling Bloopers 206
Polling 101 206
The Random Sample 206
INFO/DATA Surveys Face Growing Difficulty Reaching and Persuading Potential Respondents 207
Sampling Frame 208
Refining the Sample 208
Timing 208
Wording 208
COMPARING NATIONS 7.1: Top Global Threats: Polling Around the World 209
Lies, Damn Lies, and Polls 209
Technology and Error 209
Sampling Error and Response Bias 210
How Did They Do? 210
Do Opinion Surveys Influence Us? 211
TALKING POLITICS TYPES OF POLLS 211
WHAT DO YOU THINK? IS POLLING BAD FOR DEMOCRACY?
Public Opinion in a Democracy 212
Ignorant Masses 213
The Rational Public 213
WHAT DO YOU THINK? HOW CLOSELY SHOULD CANDIDATES FOLLOW PUBLIC OPINION?
Public Opinion and Governing 215
Do the People Know What They Want? 215
How Do the People Communicate Their Desires? 216
Do Leaders Respond to Public Opinion? 216
Conclusion: Government by the People 218
Chapter Summary 218
Key Terms
Study Questions 219
8 Political Participation 220
BY THE NUMBERS Political Participation 223
How We Participate 222
Traditional Participation 222
Voting 222
Electoral Activities 224
Political Voice 224
Civic Voluntarism 225
Direct Action 225
WHAT DO YOU THINK? WOULD YOU HAVE
PROTESTED? 226
Civil Disobedience 226
An Underlying Question 226
Why People Get Involved 227
Background: Age, Wealth, and Education 228
Age 228
Wealth 228
Education 228
Race 228
INFO/DATA Issues Attracting Americans to Public Rallies
Friends, Family, and Social Capital 230
Political Mobilization 232
TALKING POLITICS HOW MOBILIZERS SEE US 231
Government Beneficiaries 232
Context 232
What Discourages Political Participation? 233
COMPARING NATIONS 8.1: Voter Turnout in Selected Countries 234
Alienation 234
COMPARING NATIONS 8.2: Trust in Government 236
Institutional Barriers
Complacency 237
Shifting Mobilization Patterns 238
New Avenues for Participation: The Internet, Social Media, and the Millennial Generation 238
Scenario 1: Rebooting Democracy 239
Scenario 2: More Hype and Danger Than Democratic Renaissance240
Does Social Media Increase Political Participation? 240
How the Millennial Generation Participates 242
Conclusion 244
WHAT DO YOU THINK? SHOULD VOTING BE REQUIRED BY LAW? 245
Chapter Summary 246
Key Terms
Study Questions 246
9 Media, Technology, and Government 248
BY THE NUMBERS The Media 251
Media and American Democracy 251
Providing Information 251
Watching Political Leaders 252
Shaping the Political Agenda 252
U.S. Media Today: Traditional Formats Are Declining 254
Where People Go for News 254
Newspapers and Magazines: Rise and Decline 255
The First Mass Media 255
Radio Holds Steady 257
Television: From News to Infotainment 257
The Rise of Cable 258
Infotainment 258
The Rise of the New Media 259
Is the Media Biased? 261
Are Reporters Politically Biased? 261
Profits Drive the News Industry 262
Drama Delivers Audiences 262
Investigative Bias 264
WHAT DO YOU THINK? Is the Media Objective? Should It Be?
The Fairness Bias 265
How Governments Shape the Media 265
The First Amendment Protects Print Media from Regulation 265
Regulating Broadcasters 266
Protecting Competition 267
Media Around the World 267
INFO/DATA Media Consolidation 268
Government-Owned Stations 269
COMPARING NATIONS 9.1: Censorship Under Pressure? 270
Censorship 270
American Media in the World 270
Understanding the Media in Context: War, Terrorism, and U.S. Elections 271
Covering Wars and Terrorism 271
The Campaign as Drama 272
Candidate Profiles 273
Conclusion: At the Crossroads of the Media World 274
Chapter Summary 276
Key Terms
Study Questions 277
10 Campaigns and Elections XXX
BY THE NUMBERS Campaigns and Elections XXX
How Democratic Are American Elections? XXX
Frequent and Fixed Elections XXX
COMPARING NATIONS 10.1: Election Timetables for National Government XXX
Over 520,000 Elected Officials XXX
WHAT DO YOU THINK? ELECTED VERSUS APPOINTED POSITIONS?
Barriers to Voting
Too Much Money?
Democracy for the Rich? XXX
Major Donors: Easier to Give XXX
INFO/DATA Money in Elections: The New Rules XXX
Presidential Campaigns and Elections XXX
Who Runs for President? XXX
The Three Phases of Presidential Elections XXX
Winning the Nomination XXX
WHAT DO YOU THINK? WHY IOWA AND NEW
HAMPSHIRE? XXX
Organizing the Convention XXX
The General Election XXX
Winning Presidential Elections XXX
The Economy XXX
Demographics XXX
War and Foreign Policy XXX
Domestic Issues XXX
The Campaign Organization XXX
Parties Matter XXX
The Electoral College and Swing States XXX
That Elusive Winning Recipe
Predicting Presidential Elections
Congressional Elections 297
Candidates: Who Runs for Congress? 298
The Power of Incumbency 299
Patterns in Congressional Elections 301
Redrawing the Lines: The Art of the Gerrymander 302
Nonpartisan Districting and Minority Representation 304
Congressional Campaigns 305
Candidate-Centered Elections 305
How to Run for Congress 306
Key 1: Money 306
Key 2: Organization 306
TALKING POLITICS CAMPAIGN LINGO 307
Key 3: Strategy 307
Key 4: Message 308
Conclusion: Reforming American Elections 309
Chapter Summary 312
Study Questions 313
11 Political Parties 314
BY THE NUMBERS Political Parties
Political Parties and U.S. Government 317
What the Parties Do 317
Parties Champion Ideas 317
Parties Select Candidates 317
Parties Mobilize the Voters 317
Parties Organize Governing Activity After the Election 318
Parties Help Integrate New Groups into the Political Process 318
Two-Party America 319
COMPARING NATIONS 11.1: Organizing Electoral/Governing Systems 320
Third Parties in American Politics 321
America's Party Systems: Origins and Change 322
Beginnings: First Party System (1789-1828) 323
Rise: Second Party System (1828-1860) 324
War and Reconstruction: Third Party System (1860-1896) 325
Business and Reform: Fourth Party System (1896-1932) 326
Depression and the New Deal: Fifth Party System (1933-1968) 327
WHAT DO YOU THINK? DOES THE 2016 ELECTION SUGGEST A NEW PARTY SYSTEM? 328
The Sixth Party System: The Parties at Equal Strength (1969-Present) 328
Why the Party Period Matters 329
Party Identification . . . and Ideas 330
Building Party Identification 330
The Power of Party Attachment 331
Voting/Participation 331
InfoData 11.1
Filtering
Ideology
Republican Factions
Populists or Trumpists
Religious Traditionalists
Fiscal Conservatives
Libertarians
Neoconservatives
Fiscal Conservatives
Moderates
Democratic Factions
Progressives
The Civil Rights Caucus
Organized Labor
Centrists
Organizing the Parties
The Party Bureaucracy
Party in Government
Party in the Electorate
The Big Tent
TALKING POLITICS PARTY ICONS ANd SYMBOLS
Party Competition . . . and Partisanship
Parties Rise Again
Competition and Partisanship Intensifies
WHAT DO YOU THINK? PARTISANSHIP
Yes, partisanship is harmful
No, partisanship is healthy
Maybe
Conclusion: A Party System Ripe for Reform?
1. Proportional Representation
2. Reduce the Barriers to Third-Party Competition in Elections
3. Reduce Partisanship in Government
Chapter Summary
Study Questions
12 Interest Groups
BY THE NUMBERS Interest Groups
Interest-Group Roles in American Politics
Informing Members
Communicating Members' Views
Mobilizing the Public
What Do Interest Groups Do for Democracy?
Types of Interest Groups
Economic Groups
Citizen or Public Interest Groups
Intergovernmental and Reverse Lobbying
Interest Groups Past and Present
1960s Advocacy Explosion
COMPARING NATIONS 12.1: The Spread of American-Style Lobbying
Young and Plugged In
Interest-Group Lobbyists in Action
The Multiple Roles of Lobbyists
Researchers
Witnesses
Position Takers
Coalition Builders
Social Butterflies
Grassroots Campaign Builders
Three Types of Group Representatives
TALKING POLITICS WASHINGTON LOBBYING
Nonprofits Don't Lobby?
Interest Groups and the Federal Branches of Government
Rise of the Issue Network
Interest Groups and the Courts
Lobbying on Judicial Confirmations
Filing Amicus Curiae (Friend of Court) Briefs
Sponsoring Litigation
Interest Groups and Power
Interest Group Spending
INFO/DATA Amazon's Expanding Lobbying Interests, 2000-2017
Regulating Interest Groups
Are Interest Groups Bad or Good for America?
Four Concerns About Interest Groups
1. Corruption
2. Division and Hyperpluralism
3. Accountability
4. Restricted Access
Four Defenses of Interest Groups
1. More Democratic Representation
2. Communication and Information
3. Mobilizing and Organizing the Public
WHAT DO YOU THINK? HOW MUCH INFLUENCE SHOULD INTEREST GROUPS HAVE IN AMERICAN GOVERNMENT?
4. Stability
Conclusion: Interest-Group Influence Revisited
Chapter Summary
Study Questions
PART III POLITICAL ISTITUTIONS
13 Congress
Introducing Congress
BY THE NUMBERS Congress
Two Chambers, Different Styles
The House and Senate Each Have Unique Roles
WHAT DO YOU THINK? SENATE FILIBUSTERS AND LEGISLATIVE HOLDS
Congressional Representation
Does Congress Reflect America?
WHAT DO YOU THINK? WHO REALLY REPRESENTS
YOU?
Trustees and Delegates
Do the Right Thing
Do What the People Want
WHAT DO YOU THINK? TWO VIEWS
OF REPRESENTATION
Getting to Congress-And Staying There
The Permanent Campaign
Home Style: Back in the District
A Government of Strangers
Congress at Work
The City on the Hill
TALKING POLITICS CAPITOL HILL BUZZWORDS
Minnows and Whales: Congressional Leadership
House Leadership
Senate Leadership
Committees: Workhorses of Congress
The Enduring Power of Committees
Leadership and Assignments
COMPARING NATIONS 13.1: A Unique U.S. System
Legislative Policymaking
Drafting a Bill
Submitting the Bill
Committee Action
1. Committees Hold Hearings on Policy Topics
2. Committees Prepare Legislation for Floor Consideration
3. Committees Also Kill Legislation
4. Committees Exercise Oversight
Floor Action
Getting to the Floor
On the Floor
The Vote
Conference Committee
Presidential Action: Separated Powers Revisited
Why Is Congress So Unpopular?
Partisan Polarization in Congress
INFO/DATA Historic Partisan Polarization
WHAT DO YOU THINK? IS A PARTISAN CONGRESS A GOOD THING?
Divided Government
Some Popular Reforms-And Their Limits
Limit Lobbyists
Educate the Public
The Real World of Democracy
Conclusion: Congress and the Challenge of Governing
Chapter Summary
Study Questions
14 The Presidency
Defining the Presidency
BY THE NUMBERS The Presidency
Defined by Controversy
The President's Powers
COMPARING NATIONS 14.1: Chief Executives' Power
Is the Presidency Too Powerful?
An Imperial Presidency?
A Weak Office?
What Presidents Do
Commander in Chief
What Do You Think: Who Should Deploy American Troops?
Top Diplomat
The First Legislator
Recommending Measures
State of the Union
Presidential Batting Average
Veto
Signing Statements
Chief Bureaucrat
Appointments
Executive Orders
INFO/DATA Executive Orders Issued by Each President, Per Day in Office
Economist in Chief
The Head of State
Party Leader
The Bully Pulpit: Introducing Ideas
The Impossible Job
Presidential Leadership: Success and Failure in the Oval Office
Managing the Public
Approval Ratings
WHAT DO YOU THINK? RANKING THE PRESIDENT
Presidential Greatness
Greatness in Context: The Rise and Fall of Political Orders
Step 1: A New Order Rises
Step 2: The Order Refreshed
Step 3: The Old Order Crumbles
The Personal Presidency
Presidential Style
WHAT DO YOU THINK? GO PUBLIC OR PLAY THE INSIDE GAME
The Burden of the Office
The President's Team: A Tour of the White House
The Political Solar System: Presidential Appointments
The Vice President
The Cabinet
The Executive Office of the President
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
The National Security Council (NSC)
The Heart of Power: The White House Office (WHO)
TALKING POLITICS SPEAK LIKE A WEST WING INSIDER
WHAT DO YOU THINK? DO PRESIDENTS NEED SUCH A LARGE STAFF?
The First Spouse
Conclusion: The Most Powerful Office on Earth?
Chapter Summary
Study Questions
15 Bureaucracy
BY THE NUMBERS The Bureaucracy
How the Bureaucracy Grew
Birth of the Bureaucracy
War
Morality
Economics
Geography
Race/Ethnicity
The Bureaucratic Model
Hierarchy
Division of Labor
Fixed Routines
Equal Rules for All
Technical Qualifications
Bureaucratic Pathologies
The Democratic Dilemma
What Bureaucracies Do
Rule-Making
Implementation
How the Bureaucracy Is Organized
TALKING POLITICS BUREAUCRACY BUZZWORDS
The Cabinet Departments
The Challenge of Governing
COMPARING NATIONS 15.1: Parliamentary Systems
The Rotating Bureaucracy
The Cabinet and Diversity
Other Agencies
Executive Agencies
Independent Regulatory Commissions
INFO/DATA The Formation of Regulatory Commissions
An Army of Their Own
Private Contractors
Who Controls the Federal Bureaucracy?
The People
The President
WHAT DO YOU THINK ? SHOULD WE HAVE MORE POLITICALLY APPOINTED BUEAUCRATS?
Congress
Interest Groups
Bureaucratic Autonomy
Democracy Revisited
Reforming the Bureaucracy
Critiques
Cost
Inertia
Public Mistrust
Reforms
Open Up the System
Reinventing Government
Privatization
Conclusion: The Real Solution Lies with You
Chapter Summary
Study Questions
16 The Judicial Branch
Who Are We? A Nation of Laws . . .and Lawyers
Embracing the Law-and Lawsuits
BY THE NUMBERS The U.S. Judiciary
Trust in Courts
Courts in American Culture
COMPARING NATIONS 16.1: Number of Lawyers, Per Capita
Organizing the Judicial Branch
Divided We Rule
State and Local Courts
Judicial Selection
WHAT DO YOU THINK? HOW SHOULD STATES SELECT THEIR JUDGES?
Federal Courts
Specialized Courts
Diversity in the Federal Judiciary
WHAT DO YOU THINK? IDENTITY ON THE BENCH
The Court's Role
Judicial Review
Activism Versus Restraint
The Judicial Process
Too Much Power?
COMPARING NATIONS 16.2: Power of the Judiciary
. . . Or Still the Least Dangerous Branch?
The Supreme Court and How It Operates
Hearing Cases
Selecting Cases: Formal Requirements
Selecting Cases: Informal Factors
Conference Sessions and Written Decisions
Supreme Court Clerks
Confirmation Battles
Judicial Decision Making and Reform
The Role of Law
Ideology and Partisanship
INFO/DATA How Americans View the Supreme Court: Liberal or Conservative?
Collegiality and Peer Pressure
Institutional Concerns
Nineteen Cases You Should Know
1. Marbury v. Madison (1803)
2. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
3. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
4. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
5. Santa Clara Co. v. Southern Pacific Railroad (1886)
6. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
7. Lochner v. New York (1905)
8. Muller v. Oregon (1908)
9. Schenck v. United States (1919)
10. National Labor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation (1937)
11. Korematsu v. U.S. (1944)
12. Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
13. Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
14. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
15. Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
16. Roe v. Wade (1973)
17. U.S. v. Nixon (1974)
18. Bush v. Gore (2000)
19. National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (2012)
WHAT DO YOU THINK? NAME ANOTHER LANDMARK
CASE
The Nineteen Cases-and the Power of the Court
Improving the Judiciary
Criticisms
Ideas for Reform: More Resources
Term Limits
Shift Authority to Congress
Conclusion: Democracy and the Courts
Chapter Summary
Study Questions
PART IV POLICYMAKING
17 Public Policymaking and Budgeting
Public Policymaking in Five (Not-So-Easy) Stages
BY THE NUMBERS U.S. Public Policy
1. Agenda Setting
2. Framing
3. Policy Formation
Analyzing Policy, Ex Ante
From Cost-Benefit Analysis to Politics
4. Policy Implementation
Rule-Making Revisited
Top-Down Delivery
Bottom-Up Delivery
5. Policy Evaluation and Feedback
Ex Post Policy Evaluations
A Case in Point: Gang Violence
Policy Feedback
U.S. Social Policy
Wars and Social Policy
Old-Age Insurance: Social Security
Unemployment Benefits
Health and Disability: Medicare/Medicaid
WHAT DO YOU THINK? SHOULD WE REFOM SOCIAL SECURITY AND MEDICARE?
Economic Policymaking: Fiscal and Monetary Policy
Fiscal Policy
Monetary Policy
Economic Policymaking: The Federal Budget Process
President's Budget Proposal
Congressional Budget Resolution
COMPARING NATIONS 17.1: Budget Policymaking
Reign of the Cardinals: Appropriations Committee Action
Making Good Policy
Moral Policies: Justice or Democracy?
Economically Efficient Policies
Info/Data: Views on Policymaking
Capitalism Goes to the Movies
Reforming U.S. Policymaking
Systemic Reform
Policy Entrepreneurs
Eight Steps to Successful Policy Reform
Have Passion
Act with Speed
Bring a Plan 5
Mind the Symbols
Have a Philosophy
Go Public
Know the Rules
Learn How to Lose
Conclusion: Policy Matters
Chapter Summary
Study Questions
18 Foreign Policy
BY THE NUMBERS Foreign Policy
American Foreign-Policy Goal No. 1: Security
Military Primacy
COMPARING NATIONS 18.1: Military Spending Worldwide
Basis for Primacy: Realism
A Different View: Liberalism
Soft Power
Foreign Aid and National Security
COMPARING NATIONS 18.2: Spending on Foreign Aid
American Foreign-Policy Goal No. 2: Prosperity
Economic Superpower or Nation in Decline?
Free Trade
Challenges to Free Trade
Energy
Economic Weapons
Foreign-Policy Goal No. 3: Spreading American Ideals
American Exceptionalism
The View from Abroad
WHAT DO YOU THINK? IS AMERICA EXCEPTIONAL?
Foreign-Policy Perspectives
Engage the World? Isolationism Versus Intervention
Go It Alone or Act with Others?
Four Approaches
WHAT DO YOU THINK? FOREIGN-POLICY
PERSPECTIVES
Who Makes Foreign Policy?
Congress
The President
The State Department
The Department of Defense
TALKING POLITICS SOUND LIKE A FOREIGN-POLICY PRO
Intelligence
The National Security Council
Other Executive Agencies
INFO/DATA Are You a Global Citizen?
Interest Groups and the Public
Fragmentation or Success?
Adding All of It Up: Grand Strategies in U.S. History
Standing Alone (1918-1939)
The Cold War (1945-1991)
The New World Order (1989-2001)
The War on Terror (2001-2009)
Conclusion: The Next Grand Strategy
WHAT DO YOU THINK? Building a New Grand Strategy
Chapter Summary
Study Questions
APPENDIX I
The Declaration of Independence A-1
APPENDIX II
The Constitution of the United States of America A-3
APPENDIX III
The Federalist Papers nos. 1, 10, and 51 A-20
Glossary G-1
Notes N-1
Credits C-1
Index I-1
Presidential Elections, Congressional Control, 1789-2016 Insert

著者について: 

James A. Morone is the John Hazen White Professor of Political Science and Public Policy and director of the Brown's public policy program. Rogan Kersh serves as Provost and Professor of political science at Wake Forest University.

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