Fundamentals of Health Psychology

Thomas Hadjistavropoulos; Heather Hadjistavropoulos

Fundamentals of Health Psychology is a contributed health psychology text. This exciting volume brings together a highly distinguished, internationally respected team of authors to discuss the sub-fields of health psychology in North America. Written in an engaging and comprehensive style, the text emphasizes evidence-based approaches to health psychology. Split into three parts, Fundamentals of Health Psychology covers a wide range of topics. Part I, "Fundamentals of Health Psychology," introduces students to general areas of health psychology, such as body systems, healthcare systems, illness prevention, stress and coping, and pain. Chapters in Part II, "Health Conditions," deal explicitly with serious illness and specific health conditions including cancer, diabetes, HIV, multiple sclerosis, and renal conditions. Part III, "Special Populations," contains chapters dedicated to special populations-children and the elderly-and cross-cultural issues, a unique and significant offering as studies of issues affecting these populations are increasingly important in our diverse society. Each chapter includes "In Practice" case studies and "In Focus" boxes discussing additional topics of prevention, promotion, research, and treatment, to help students understand health psychology as it currently exists and its future directions. End-of-chapter "Critical Thought Questions" and recommended readings inspire and enhance student discussion and research.


1. Introduction to Health Psychology
Thomas Hadjistavropoulos and Heather D. Hadjistavropoulos
What Is Health Psychology?
A Brief History of Health Psychology
Careers in Health Psychology
Theories in Health Psychology
The Biopsychosocial Model
Health Beliefs Model
Social Cognitive Theory
Theory of Planned Behaviour
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
2. An Introduction to Body Systems and Psychological Determinants of Health
Blaine Ditto
Body Systems
The Cardiovascular System
The Gastrointestinal System
The Respiratory System
The Renal System/Urinary System
The Immune System
Psychological Influences on Body Systems
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Autonomic Nervous System
The Endocrine System
The Development of the Stress Concept
Psychological Factors in the Development of Medical Illnesses
Gastrointestinal Ulcers: Executive Monkeys and Helpless Rats
Vasovagal Reactions: A Brief but Dramatic Response
High Blood Pressure
Other Diseases
Development of the Field
Stress, Immune Function, and Illness
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
3. Health Psychology within the Health Care System
Gregory Marchildon, Heather D. Hadjistavropoulos, and Gerald P. Koocher
Health Systems in the United States, Canada, and Elsewhere
Impact of Health Systems on Health Psychology
Types of Health Services
Patterns of Health Care Utilization
Medical Service Misuse
Delayed Health Care
Adherence to Medical Care
Definition and Measurement
Rates and Predictors of Adherence
Improving Adherence
Patient Satisfaction
Medical Cost Offset of Psychological Interventions
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
4. Prevention of Illness and Health Promotion Intervention
James O. Prochaska and Janice M. Prochaska
Importance of a Healthy Lifestyle
Core Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change
Stages of Change
Processes of Change
Decisional Balance
Critical Assumptions of the TTM
Empirical Support
Stage Distribution
Pros and Cons Structure across 12 Behaviours
Integration of Pros and Cons and Stages of Change Across 12 Health Behaviours
Processes of Change across Behaviours
Relationship between Stages and Processes of Change
Applied Studies
Challenging Studies
Increasing Impacts with Multiple Behaviour Change Programs
Applying TTM Interventions to Exercise, Nutrition, and Smoking
Limitations of the Model
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
5. Stress, Coping, and Health
Nicholas J. S. Christenfeld and Britta A. Larsen
Stress, Coping, and Health
Good vs. Bad Stress
Acute vs. Chronic Stress
Stressful Situations
Job and Primary Role Stress
Life Events
Caregiver Stress
Sociological Stress: Socioeconomic Status, Gender, and Race
Contributors to Stress: The Person
Contributors to Stress: Person x Situation Interaction
Problem vs. Emotion-Focused Coping
Social Support
The Great Gender Divide
Other Coping Strategies
Stress and Mental Health
Stress Management
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
6. Health Anxiety and Other Psychological Responses to Bodily Symptoms
Heather D. Hadjistavropoulos
Common Sense Model of Illness Representations
Dimensions of Illness Representations
Relationship between Illness Representations and Coping Behaviour
Illness Representations and Health Outcomes
Determinants of Illness Representations
Health Anxiety
Clinical Considerations
Cognitive Behavioural Model of Health Anxiety
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
7. The Psychology of Pain
Thomas Hadjistavropoulos
Acute vs. Chronic Pain, Prevalence, and Medical Management
Understanding the Nature of Pain
Theories of Pain
Psychological Assessment of Pain
Full History, Comorbidities, Coping Styles, and Overall Psychological Functioning
Dimensions of the Pain Experience
Pain Behaviour, its Antecedents, Consequences, and Other Situational/Environmental
Determinants of the Pain Experience
Effects of Pain on Quality of Life
Psychological Treatments for Chronic Pain
Psychological Management of Acute Pain
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
8. Cancer
Anne Moyer and Elizabeth A. Sarma
Types and Prevalence of Cancer
Lung Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Breast Cancer
Medical Management Approaches
Cancer Risk Factors
Biopsychosocial Factors in Cancer Incidence and Progression
Cancer Prevention
Psychosocial Adjustment to Cancer
Psychological Assessment of the Cancer Patient
Psychological Interventions for Cancer Patients
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
9. Cardiovascular Disease
Amanda C. Kentner, Adrienne H. Kovacs, and Sherry L. Grace
Cardiovascular Disease Description, Prevalence, and Medical Management
The Disease Process
Prevalence of CVD
Medical Management of CVD
Psychological Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Prevention
Social Isolation
Psychological Disorders
Positive Psychology: Resilience and Coping
How? The Biopsychosocial Model
Summary of Psychological Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Prevention
Psychological Assessment of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease
Personality Factors
Social Support
Interventions for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease
Pharmacotherapy (Medications)
Psychotherapy ("Talk Therapy")
Psycho-educational and Behavioural Interventions
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
10. Diabetes
Kristi E. White, Laura L. Mayhew, and William P. Sacco
Diabetes Overview
Endocrine Disorders
Diabetes Classification
Diabetes Statistics
Etiology and Risk Factors
Common Medical Complications
Medical Management of Diabetes
Prediabetes, Type 2, and Gestational Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
Other Medical Management Issues
Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME)
Psychosocial Factors in Diabetes
Stress and Coping
Beliefs and Expectations
Anxiety and Eating Disorders
Social Support
Theories and Models Related to Diabetes
Psychosocial Assessment of Patients with Diabetes
Psychological Interventions for People with Diabetes
Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
Problem-Solving Therapy (PST)
Relaxation Training
Motivational Interviewing (MI)
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
11. HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections
Tyler G. Tulloch, Natalie Stratton, Stanley Ing, Bojana Petrovic, and Trevor A. Hart
Sexually Transmitted Infections in the National and Global Context
Overview of STIs in the US and Canada
Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors in HIV/STI Acquisition
Knowledge, Motivation, and Skills
Number of Sexual Partners
Substance Use
Internalized Homophobia
Personality Factors
Sociocultural Factors
Coping with HIV
Medication Adherence
Assessment of HIV/STI Risk Behaviour and Medication Adherence
Evidence Based Treatments and Other Interventions
Theoretical Frameworks Used in Evidence Based Interventions
Methods of Delivering Interventions
Interventions to Prevent HIV and STI Transmission
Treatments and Interventions Involving People Living with HIV/STIs
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
12. Multiple Sclerosis and Other Chronic Neurological Diseases
Danielle Blackmore, Jenna Albiani, and Tae Hart
Background on Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Symptoms, and Prevalence
Prevalence and Risk Factors
Types of MS
Medical Interventions and Symptom Management Strategies
Managing Acute Attacks
Preventing New Attacks
Managing Existing Symptoms of MS
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Emerging Treatment
Psychological Factors in MS
Sexual Dysfunction
Cognitive Function
Stress, Appraisal, and Coping
Other Psychological Factors in MS
Psychological Assessment in People with MS
The Assessment of Depression and Anxiety
The Assessment of Fatigue
The Assessment of Sexual Dysfunction
The Assessment of Cognitive Function
Treatment of Psychological Issues in MS
The Treatment of Depression and Anxiety
The Treatment of Fatigue
The Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction
Management of Cognitive Symptoms
Treating Other Psychological and Physical Symptoms
Other Chronic Neurological Diseases: Huntington's Disease and ALS
Huntington's Disease
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
13. Obstetric and Gynaecological Conditions
Pamela A. Geller and Alexa Bonacquisti
Psychosocial/Contextual Factors
Mental Health Issues
Prenatal Mental Health Issues
Health Behaviour Changes During Pregnancy
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Smoking Cessation
Pregnancy Loss
Postpartum Responses
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
14. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Thomas Ritz and Thomas Janssens
Definition, Prevalence, and Medical Treatment
Disease Manifestation and Physiology
Psychological Factors in Asthma
Definition, Prevalence and Medical Treatment
Psychological Factors in COPD
Psychological Assessment of Patients with Asthma and COPD
Psychological Interventions for Patients with Asthma and COPD
Self-Management and Education
Psychophysiological Control Interventions
Lifestyle Interventions and Rehabilitation
Psychosocial Interventions
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
15. Gastrointestinal Conditions
Sarah K. Ballou, Rachel C. Lawton, and Laurie Keefer
Introduction to Gastrointestinal Conditions: IBS and IBD
Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Functional Syndrome of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Psychosocial Factors
Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Organic Gastrointestinal Tract Condition
Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Psychosocial Factors
Psychological Assessment of Patients with Gastrointestinal Conditions
Psychological Interventions for Patients with Gastrointestinal Conditions
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Gut-Directed Hypnotherapy
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
16. The Renal and Urological Systems: Focus on Kidney Disease
Konstadina Griva
The Renal and Urinary System
Kidney Disease
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)
Chronic Kidney Disease
Treatment for CKD
Decision Making Process in CKD
Conservative Management
CKD in Children
Psychological Problems and Quality of Life
Quality of Life (QOL)
Neurocognitive Function
Emotional Distress
Treatment-related Stress
Other Psychological Factors
Social Support
Illness and Treatment Beliefs
Psychological Assessment in CKD
Psychological Interventions
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
17. Pediatric Psychology
Christine T. Chambers
What is Pediatric Psychology?
Coping with Chronic Medical Conditions
Adherence to Pediatric Treatment Regimens
Coping with Medical Procedures
Pediatric Chronic Pain
Pediatric Palliative Care
Common Parenting Challenges: Sleeping, Feeding, Toileting
Impact on Family
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
18. Health Geropsychology
Rebecca S. Allen, Casey B. Azuero, and Thomas Hadjistavropoulos
Working with Older Adults with Chronic Illnesses
Interdisciplinary and Collaborative Care
Family Caregiving and Chronic Illness
Chronic Pain
Older Adults Who Live Independently in the Community
Older Adults with Dementia Who Live in Long-Term Care Facilities
Behavioural Interventions in Long-term Care
Behavioural Activation in Long-Term Care
Reminiscence Therapy
Treatments in the Community
Treatments in Long-term Care
Treatment for Individuals Approaching the End of Life
Cognitive Rehabilitation
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading
19. Cross-Cultural Issues in Health Psychology
Jaime Williams and Chantelle Richmond
Introduction: The Importance of Cross-Cultural Issues in Health Psychology
What is Diversity? Distinguishing Among Race, Ethnicity, and Culture
Hofstede's Value Dimensions of Culture
Cultural Factors and a Biopsychosocial Formulation of Health
Health Beliefs Expressed Cross-Culturally
Health Disparities among Cultural Groups
Key Health Disparities in North America
Determinants of Health Disparities
Socioeconomic Status: A Critical Determinant of Health Disparity
The Effect of Acculturation
Mental Health Issues and Health
Cross-Cultural Presentation of Psychological Symptoms and Disorders
Empirically Supported Therapies with Cultural Groups
Cultural Competence
Future Directions
Critical Thought Questions
Recommended Reading


Dr Thomas Hadjistavropoulos is a University of Regina Research Chair in Psychology, professor of psychology, and past-president of the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA). He is director of the Health Psychology Research Lab at the University of Regina and he serves on the editorial boards for several academic journals including Canadian Psychology, Journal of Aging and Health, and Assessment. He is internationally recognized as an authority on pain among seniors and on ethical issues in health care. He has been honoured through a long list of prestigious awards and distinctions, including a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Investigator Award, Elected Fellow of the Canadian Academy of the Health Sciences (CAHS), Elected Fellow of the American Psychological Association, and Saskatchewan Health Research Foundation Achievement Award.