Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes

ISBN : 9780199753628

Robert W. Proctor; E. John Capaldi
552 ページ
164 x 235 mm

The study of science, sometimes referred to as metascience, is a new and growing field that includes the philosophy of science, history of science, sociology of science, and anthropology of science. In the last ten years, the formal study of the psychology of science has also emerged. The psychology of science focuses on the individual scientist, influenced by intelligence, motivation, personality, and the development of scientific interest, thought, ability, and achievement over a lifespan. Science can be defined as explicitly and systematically testing hypotheses. Defined more broadly, science includes wider processes, such as theory construction and the hypothesis testing seen in children and "non-scientific" adults. Most prior work in the study of science has emphasized the role of explicit reasoning; however, contemporary research in psychology emphasizes the importance of implicit processes in decision-making and choice and assumes that the performance of many tasks involves a complex relationship between implicit and explicit processes. Psychology of Science brings together contributions from leaders in the emerging discipline of the psychology of science with other experts on the roles of implicit and explicit processes in thinking. Highlighting the role of implicit processes in the creation of scientific knowledge, this volume links the psychology of science to many strands of psychology , including cognitive, social, and developmental psychology, as well as neuroscience. Ultimately, this volume raises awareness of the psychology of science among psychologists, philosophers, and sociologists of science, and anyone interested in the metasciences.


Implicit and Explicit Processes in the Psychology of Science
Robert W. Proctor and E. J. Capaldi
Part 1: Role of the Psychology of Science and its Methods
Chapter 1
The Psychology of Science is Off and Running but Where Do We Go from Here?
Gregory Feist
Chapter 2
Psychology of Science: Influence on the Philosophy of Science
E. J. Capaldi and Robert W. Proctor
Chapter 3
Methodological Approaches to Scientific and Technological Thinking
Michael E. Gorman
Part 2: Agency and Reasoning in the Psychology of Science
Chapter 4
The Role of Psychology in an Agent-Based Theory of Science
Ronald N. Giere
Chapter 5
The Acting Person in Scientific Practice
Lisa Osbeck and Nancy J. Nersessian
Chapter 6
Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) and the Causal and Scientific Reasoning of Non-scientists
Barbara Koslowski
Chapter 7
Classifying and Remediating Late Elementary and Middle School Students' Errors and Misconceptions about Experimental Design
Stephanie A. Siler and David Klahr
Part 3: Implicit and Explicit Processes in the Cognitive Psychology of Science
Chapter 8
What are Implicit and Explicit Processes?
Jan De Houwer and Agnes Moors
Chapter 9
How Should We Understand the Implicit and Explicit Processes in Scientific Thinking?
Donelson E. Dulany
Chapter 10
The Interaction of Implicit vs. Explicit Processing and Problem Difficulty in a Scientific Discovery Task
Corinne Zimmerman and Jean E. Pretz
Part 4: Psychological Perspectives: Influence on Science
Chapter 11
Implicit Cognition and Researcher Conflict of Interest
Anthony G. Greenwald
Chapter 12
Science, Feminism, and the Psychology of Investigating Gender
Alice H. Eagly
Chapter 13
The Theory Ladenness of the Mental Processes used in the Scientific Enterprise: Evidence from Cognitive Psychology and the History of Science
William F. Brewer
Chapter 14
The Practice of Psychological Science in Social-Personality Research: Are We Still a Science of Two Disciplines?
Jessica L. Tracy, Richard W. Robins, and Jeffrey W. Sherman
Part 5: Scientific Creativity
Chapter 15
Scientific Creativity as Blind Variation: Explicit and Implicit Procedures, Mechanisms, and Processes
Dean Keith Simonton
Chapter 16
Creative Combination of Representations: Scientific Discovery and Technological Invention
Paul Thagard
Chapter 17
On the Unreasonable Reasonableness of Mathematical Physics: A Cognitive View
Ryan Tweney
Chapter 18
Digging into Implicit/Explicit States and Processes: The Case of Cognitive/Social Process Interaction in Scientific Groups
Susannah B. F. Paletz and Christian D. Schunn
Part 6: Unconventional Perspectives on the Conduct of Science
Chapter 19
Implicit Ontological Reasoning: The Problems of Dualism in Psychological Science
Brent D. Slife, Jeffrey S. Reber, and James E. Faulconer
Chapter 20
Notre Trahison Des Clercs: Implicit Aspirations - Explicit Exploitations
Peter A. Hancock


Robert W. Proctor is Distinguished Professor of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University. He has been teaching and conducting research in the areas of attention and performance for 35 years. He is editor of the American Journal of Psychology, the first psychology journal in the U.S. He is also a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Association for Psychological Science. E.J. Capaldi is Emeritus Professor of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University. He is a leading researcher in the field of learning and memory, and has authored numerous articles and contributed to many books in those areas. Drs. Proctor and Capaldi have been working together in the areas of philosophy and psychology of science since the early 1990s. They have co-authored 12 articles and chapters in these areas, as well as two books, Why Science Matters: Understanding the Methods of Psychological Research and Contextualism in Psychological Research?: A Critical Review.