50 Studies Every Doctor Should Know: The Key Studies that Form the Foundation of Evidence-Based Medicine (2nd edition)

ISBN : 9780197533642

Michael E. Hochman; Steven D. Hochman
288 ページ
156 x 235 mm

The inaugural volume of the 50 Studies series, 50 Studies Every Doctor Should Know presents key studies that have shaped the practice of medicine. Selected using a rigorous methodology, the studies cover topics ranging from dieting to cardiovascular disease, insomnia to obstetrics. For each study, a concise summary is presented with an emphasis on the results and limitations of the study, and its implications for practice. Brief information on other relevant studies is provided, and an illustrative clinical case concludes each review. A section of review questions and answers is included at the back of the book to ensure that readers take away the key messages from each study. For this new edition, the contents were reorganized to include ten new studies, and the references, guidelines, and implications of existing studies were thoroughly updated. This book is a must-read for health care professionals and anyone who wants to learn more about the data behind clinical practice.


SECTION 1 Preventive Medicine
1. Preventing Diabetes: The Diabetes Prevention Program
2. A Comparison of Different Dieting Strategies
3. Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
4. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy: The Women's Health Initiative
5. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC)
6. The Cochrane Review of Screening Mammography
7. Low-Dose CT Screening for Lung Cancer: The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)
SECTION 2 Internal Medicine
8. Arrhythmia Suppression following Myocardial Infarction: The CAST Trial
9. Choosing First-Line Therapy for Hypertension: The ALLHAT Trial
10. Intensive vs. Standard Hypertension Management: The SPRINT Trial
11. Statins in Healthy Patients: The HOPE-3 Trial
12. Beta Blockers for Systolic Heart Failure: The MERIT-HF Trial
13. Initial Treatment of Stable Coronary Artery Disease: The ISCHEMIA Trial
14. Treating Elevated Blood Sugar Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS)
15. Intensive versus Conservative Blood Sugar Control for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: The ACCORD Trial
16. The African American Heart Failure Trial (A-HeFT)
17. Early versus Delayed Antiretroviral Therapy for Patients with HIV: The INSIGHT START Trial
18. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis to Prevent HIV Transmission: The iPeEx Trial
19. Early versus Late Initiation of Dialysis: The IDEAL Trial
20. Red Cell Transfusion in Critically Ill Patients: The TRICC Trial
21. Pulmonary Artery Catheters in Critically Ill Patients
22. Opioids for Chronic Noncancer Pain: The SPACE Trial
SECTION 3 Surgery
23. Perioperative Beta Blockers in Noncardiac Surgery: The POISE Trial
24. Cardiac Stents versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Severe Coronary Artery Disease: The SYNTAX Trial
25. Carotid Endarterectomy for Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis: The ACST Trial
26. A Trial of Arthroscopic Knee Surgery
27. Surgery versus Rehabilitation for Chronic Low Back Pain: The MRC Spine Stabilization Trial
28. Mastectomy versus Lumpectomy for Invasive Breast Cancer: The B-06 Trial
29. Long-Term Impact of Bariatric Surgery: The Swedish Obese Subjects Study
SECTION 4 Obstetrics
30. Labor Induction vs. Expectant Management at 39 Weeks Gestation: The ARRIVE Trial
31. Antepartum Glucocorticoids in Premature Labor
32. Cell-free DNA Analysis for Prenatal Diagnosis
33. Effectiveness of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception
SECTION 5 Pediatrics
34. Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Children
35. A Trial of Early Ear Tube Placement in Children with Persistent Otitis Media
36. Inhaled Corticosteroids for Mild Persistent Asthma: The START Trial
37. The Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA)
38. Vaccines and Autism: A Meta-Analysis
39. Preventing Peanut Allergies with Early Peanut Consumption in Infants: The Leap Trial
SECTION 6 Radiology
40. Early Imaging for Back Pain in Older Adults: The BOLD Study
41. Screening for Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Patients with Diabetes: The DIAD Study
42. Pediatric Computed Tomography, Radiation Exposure and Estimated Cancer Risk
43. Identifying Children with Low-Risk Head Injuries Who Do Not Require Computed Tomography
SECTION 7 Neurology and Psychiatry
44. Thrombolysis 3 to 4.5 Hours after an Acute Ischemic Stroke: The ECASS III Trial
45. Intra-Arterial Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke: The MR CLEAN Trial
46. Initial Treatment of Depression: The STAR*D Trial
47. Behavioral versus Pharmacological Treatment for Insomnia in the Elderly
SECTION 8 Systems-Based Practice
48. Reducing Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infections in the Intensive Care Unit: The Keystone ICU Project
49. Early Palliative Care in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
50. Directly Observed Therapy for the Treatment of Tuberculosis in Baltimore


Michael Hochman, MD, MPH, is the inaugural CEO of SCAN's Homeless Medical Group initiative. He previously served as the inaugural director of the USC Gehr Family Center for Health Systems Science and the Medical Director for Innovation at AltaMed Health Services. Dr. Hochman attended Harvard Medical School and was a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Fellow at UCLA. He has written on health topics for the Boston Globe and other publications, and is the founding editor of the 50 Studies Every Doctor Should Know book series published by Oxford University Press. Steven Hochman, MD, MPH, is a staff physician at the JWCH Institute, Inc., where he provides primary care services. He graduated from Pomona College and the Keck School of Medicine of USC. He completed clinical training in Internal Medicine and Pediatrics at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine.