Studying Public Policy: Principles and Processes (4th edition)

ISBN : 9780199026142

Howlett Howlett; Ramesh; Anthony Perl
416 ページ
156 x 235 mm

Studying Public Policy develops an analytical framework that will enable students to study public policy more effectively. The first of the books three parts examines different approaches to studying public policy by providing inventories of the relevant types of policy actors, structures, and ideas involved in public policy-making. Part Two then breaks down the policy process into the five sub-processes or sub-stages set out in the policy cycle model and analyzes the variables affecting each stage. Part Three concludes the text with a general commentary on the nature of policy change and stability.


Part I - Methodology, Theory, and Context in Public Policy Research
Chapter 1 Studying Public Policy: Why and How
Public Policy Defined
Methodological Considerations for Studying Public Policy
The Policy Cycle Framework: A Problem-Solving Model of the Policy Process
The Need for Public Policy Capacity
Identifying and Studying Policy Styles and Policy Regimes
Overview of the Book
Study Questions
Further Readings
Chapter 2 Understanding Public Policy: Theoretical Approaches
Evolution of the Policy Sciences
Approaches to Public Policy Analysis: Positivism and Post-Positivism Revisited
Positivist Approaches to Policy Analysis
Post-Positivist Approaches to Policy Analysis
Reconciling the Positivist and Post-Positivist Approaches
Approaches to Public Policy Studies: Multi-Level, Multi-Disciplinary
Public Choice
Class Analysis
Study Questions
Further Readings
Chapter 3 The Policy Context: States and Societies
Institutions, Ideas, and Actors in Public Policy
The Role of Policy Ideas: Paradigms, Public Sentiments, Symbolic Frames, and Program Ideas
The Political-Economic Context
Policy-Making in the Liberal-Democratic Capitalist State
Political-Economic Structures and Public Policy-Making
Political Systems and Public Policy
Domestic Policy Actors
The International System and Public Policy
Policy Subsystems and Policy Regimes: Integrating Institutions, Ideas, and Actors
Policy Subsystems
Study Questions
Further Readings
Part II - The Five Stages of the Policy Cycle
Chapter 4 Agenda-Setting: Definition and Problematics
What Is Agenda-Setting?
Issue Initiation
Issue Expansion
The Problematics of Agenda-Setting: Issue-Attention Dynamics
Issue-Attention in Governments and Society
Problems versus Conditions
Problem Tractability
Other Dilemmas of Policy Problems
The Substance of Agenda-Setting: Problem Construction
Objective Construction: Convergence Theory and Political Business Cycles
Subjective Construction: Ideas and Discourses
Gauging Problem Severity: Indicators and Measures
Actors and Tasks in Agenda-Setting
Epistemic Communities
Instrument Constituencies
Advocacy Coalitions
Policy Entrepreneurs and Policy Brokers
Theories of Agenda-Setting: Ideas, Actors, and Structures
Funnels of Causality
Modes of Agenda-Setting
The Multiple Streams Model and Its Evolution
Conclusion: A Policy Subsystem Conception of Agenda-Setting
Study Questions
Further Readings
Chapter 5 Policy Formulation: Identifying and Assessing Policy Alternatives
What Is Policy Formulation?
The Problematics of Policy Formulation
Procedural and Substantive Capacity Limits
Context in Policy Formulation: Design and Non-Design Orientations
The Substance of Policy Formulation: Selecting Policy Tools
Nodality, or Information-Based Policy Tools
Authority-Based Policy Tools
Treasure-Based Policy Tools
Organization-Based Policy Tools
The Formulation Challenge: Mixing and Bundling Policy Tools
Actors in Policy Formulation
Policy Advisors and Policy Advisory Systems
Instrument Constituencies
Modelling Policy Formulation
Conclusion: Policy Formulation - Opening up the Black Box
Study Questions
Further Readings
Chapter 6 Decision-Making in Public Policy: Policy Selection and Choice
What Is Decision-Making in the Public Sector?
Problematics of Decision-Making: An Unknown Future and Risks of Failure
Over- and Under-Reactions
Uncertainty, Ambiguity, Ignorance, and Incompetence
The Substance of Decision-Making: Seeking Advice and Evidence about Policy Choices
Policy Analysis
Evidence-Based Decision-Making
The Nature of Policy Choices: Negative, Positive, and Non-Decisions
Actors in the Decision-Making Process
Executive, Legislators, Judges, and Administrative Officials
Policy Networks
Theories of Decision-Making
Early Rational and Incremental Models
The Comprehensive and Bounded-Rationality Models
Incremental Model
Mixed-Scanning Models
Garbage Can Models
Decision Accretion Model
Conclusion: Revisiting Public Policy Decision-Making Modes
Study Questions
Further Readings
Chapter 7 Policy Implementation: Putting Policies into Effect
What Is Policy Implementation?
Policy Implementation Barriers: Perfect Implementation and the Anatomy of Failure
Barriers to Policy Implementation Originating in the Policy Context
Overcoming Policy Implementation Challenges: Understanding Policy Behaviour and the Foundations of Compliance
Tools, Targets and Policy Compliance
Uncertainty: The Need to Deal with Implementation Surprises
Implementation Capacities
Actors and Activities in Policy Implementation
How Multiple Streams Influence Actors During Implementation
The Problem Stream
The Policy Stream
The Politics Stream
The Process Stream
The Program Stream
Implementation Theories: Seeking and Informing the Logic Behind Program Design
First Generation: Borrowing from Public Administration
Second Generation: Borrowing from Organization Theory
Third Generation: Rationalist Theories and Game Theories
Fourth Generation Implementation Theory: Taking Capacity Seriously
Conclusion: Implementation Styles and Long-Term Instrument Preferences
Study Questions
Further Readings
Chapter 8 Policy Evaluation: Policy-Making as Learning
What Is Policy Evaluation?
Perspectives on Evaluation: Positivist and Post-Positivist
Approaches to Evaluation: Administrative and Political
Policy Evaluation as Policy Learning
Actors in the Policy Evaluation Process
Internal Evaluators
External Evaluators
Types of Policy Evaluation
Process Evaluation
Impact Evaluation
Evaluating and Assessing Policy Success and Failure
Assessing the Results of Policy Evaluation
Evaluation Criteria
Dealing with the Results of Evaluation: Policy Feedback and Policy Termination
Linking Policy Evaluation and Learning: Evaluation Styles in Government
Conclusion: The Role of Evaluation in the Policy Cycle
Study Questions
Further Readings
Part III - Long-Term Policy Dynamics
Chapter 9 Patterns of Policy Change: Between Punctuations and Increments
The Outcomes of Policy Succession
Policy Feedback
Policy Termination
Types of Policy Change
Normal Policy Change
Atypical Policy Change
Punctuated Equilibrium: Linking Normal and Atypical Policy Change
The Continued Contemporary Relevance of Studying Public Policy: Can the Policy Cycle Model Cope with Challenges from Truthiness?
Study Questions
Further Readings


Michael Howlett is Canada Research Chair in Policy and Innovation for Climate Change and Burnaby Mountain Chair and Professor of Political Science at Simon Fraser University.; M. Ramesh is UNESCO Chair of Social Policy Design in Asia and a Professor at the Lew Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore.; Anthony Perl is a Professor and the Director of the Urban Studies Program at Simon Fraser University.