ISBN : 9780190939274

Paul Humphreys
312 ページ
140 x 140 mm

Interest in emergence amongst philosophers and scientists has grown in recent years, yet the concept continues to be viewed with skepticism by many. In this book, Paul Humphreys argues that many of the problems arise from a long philosophical tradition that is overly committed to synchronic reduction and has been overly focused on problems in philosophy of mind. He develops a novel account of diachronic ontological emergence called transformational emergence, shows that it is free of the problems raised against synchronic accounts, shows that there are plausible examples of transformational emergence within physics and chemistry, and argues that the central ideas fit into a well established historical tradition of emergence that includes John Stuart Mill, G.E. Moore, and C.D. Broad. The book also provides a comprehensive assessment of current theories of emergence and so can be used as a way into what is by now a very large literature on the topic. It places theories of emergence within a plausible classification, provides criteria for emergence, and argues that there is no single unifying account of emergence. Reevaluations of related topics in metaphysics are provided, including fundamentality, physicalism, holism, methodological individualism, and multiple realizability, among others. The relations between scientific and philosophical conceptions of emergence are assessed, with examples such as self-organization, ferromagnetism, cellular automata, and nonlinear systems being discussed. Although the book is written for professional philosophers, simple and intuitively accessible examples are used to illustrate the new concepts.


1. Basic Features of Emergence
SC1.0 Introduction
SC1.0.1 The General Approach
SC1.1 A General Strategy
SC1.1.1 Method
SC1.1.2 Models and Reality
SC1.2 Generative Atomism
SC1.2.1 An Aside on Eddington's Tables
SC1.2.2 Generalizations
SC1.3 Checkers World
SC1.4 Atomism
SC1.4.1 Immutability
SC1.4.2 Indivisibility
SC1.4.3 Distinguishability
SC1.4.4 What Counts as an Atom?
SC1.5 Criteria for Emergence
SC1.5.1 The First Feature: Emergence is Relational
SC1.5.2 The Second and Third Features: Novelty and Autonomy
SC1.5.3 Holism
SC1.6 A Taxonomy for Emergence
SC1.6.1 Inferential Emergence
SC1.6.2 Conceptual Emergence
SC1.6.3 Ontological Emergence
SC1.6.4 The Temporal Taxonomy
SC1.7 Examples of Emergence
SC1.8 Other Approaches to Emergence
SC1.8.1 Emergence as Unexplainability.
SC1.8.2 Nomological Emergence.
SC1.8.3 Emergence as a Result of Essential Interactions
SC1.8.4 Emergence as Non-Definability.
SC1.9 The Rarity Heuristic
2. Ontological Emergence
SC2.0 Ontological Emergence
SC2.1 Transformational Emergence
SC2.1.1 A Possible Example of Transformational Emergence
SC2.2 Fusion Emergence
SC2.2.1 The Money Example: Fusion without Emergence
SC2.2.2 The Probability Example: Failure of Supervenience without Fusion
SC2.2.3 The Representation of Fusion
SC2.2.4 Defusion
SC2.2.5 Examples
SC2.3 Arguments Against Fusion
SC2.4 The Origins of the Universe Argument
3. Ancestors and Relatives
SC3.0 Mill and Broad on Emergence
SC3.1 Internal and External Relations
SC3.1.1 G.E. Moore
SC3.1.2 Lewis's Definitions
SC3.1.3 Relationism, Holism, and Interactions
SC3.2 Levels
SC3.3 Downward Causation
SC3.3.1 Cube World
SC3.4 Holism, Contextualism, and Transformation
SC3.4.1 Transformation Revisited
SC3.4.2 Contextualism and Compositionality
SC3.4.3 Generative Atomism Again
4. Inferential Emergence
SC4.0 A Definition
SC4.1 Pattern Emergence
SC4.1.1 Nonrandomness
SC4.1.2 Self-Organization
SC4.1.3 Generation and Stability
SC4.1.4 Pattern Emergence Need Not Be Discontinuous
SC4.1.5 Pattern Emergence is Historical
SC4.1.6 Properties of Pattern Emergence
SC4.1.7 Multiple Instantiability and Multiple Realizability
SC4.2 Weak Emergence
SC4.2.1 Illustrations: Bird Flocking and Traffic Jams
SC4.2.2 Assessment
SC4.2.3 Weak Emergence as Explanatory Incompressibility
SC4.2.4 Weak Emergence and Explanation
5. Conceptual Emergence
SC5.0 Conceptual Innovation
SC5.1 Reduction and Construction
SC5.1.1 A Turn to Ontology
SC5.2 Philosophical Counterparts to Constructionism
SC5.3 Functional Reduction
6. Philosophical Topics Related to Emergence
SC6.0 Physicalism
SC 6.0.1 Motivations for Physicalism
SC 6.0.2 Limit Physics
SC6.1 Emergence as Supervenience
SC6.1.1 Nomological Supervenience
SC6.1.2 Why Use Supervenience?
SC6.1.3 Supervenience Definitions
SC6.1.4 Nomological or Logical Necessitation?
SC6.1.5 Supervenience is Not Explanatory
SC6.1.6 Humean Supervenience
SC6.2 Fundamentality
SC6.3 Multiple Realizability
SC6.3.1 Token versus Type Identity
SC6.4 Compositionality and Aggregativity
SC6.4.1 A Suggested Amendment to the Nonaggregativity Approach
SC6.5 Emergence as Non-Structural Properties
SC6.5.1 The Relation of Nonstructural Properties to Transformational Emergence
SC6.6 Properties and Objects
7. Scientific Topics Related to Emergence
SC7.0 An Example: Ferromagnetism
SC7.0.1 Basic Features of Ferromagnetism
SC7.0.2 The Status of Ferromagnetism as an Emergent Phenomenon
SC7.0.3 Models, Possibilities, and Actuality
SC7.1 Linearity, Nonlinearity, and Complexity Theory
SC7.1.1 Linearity
SC7.1.2 Complexity Theory
SC7.2 Dynamical Systems


Paul Humphreys is Commonwealth Professor of Philosophy and co-Director of the Center for the Study of Data and Knowledge at the University of Virginia. Co-editor of the widely used collection Emergence: Contemporary Readings in Science and Philosophy, his current research interests include computational science, data analytics in science and the humanities, probability, causality, and explanation.