ISBN : 9780190941628
This volume introduces readers to a selected number of core issues in metaphysics that have been central in the history of philosophy and remain foundational to contemporary debates, that is: substances; properties; modality and essence; causality; determinism and free will. Anna Marmodoro and Erasmus Mayr take a neo-Aristotelian approach both in the selection and presentation of the topics. But Marmodoro and Mayr's discussion is not narrowly partisan-it consistently presents opposing sides of the debate and addresses issues from different philosophical traditions, and encourages readers to draw their own conclusions about them. Metaphysics combines a state-of-the-art presentation of the issues that takes into account the most recent developments in the field, with extensive references to the history of philosophy. The book thus makes topics in contemporary analytical metaphysics easily accessible to readers who have no specific background in contemporary philosophy, but rather in the history of philosophy. At the same time, it will engage readers who do not have any historical background with some key developments within the history of the subject.
Chapter 1. Substance
1.2 Substance versus properties
1.3 Substrate and properties, or bundles of tropes?
1.4 Aristotle's hylomorphism
1.5 Persistence of the substance
Chapter 2. Properties and relations
2.2. Do properties exist? Realism versus nominalism
2.3 Reductionism and Fundamentality
2.4 Dispositional properties (aka powers) and categorical properties
2.5 Are powers genuine and irreducible properties?
2.6 Are pure powers 'enough' to build the world out of?
2.7 Relations versus monadic properties
Chapter 3. Modality and Essence
3.2. Aristotle's essentialism
3.3. Against essentialism and non-logical necessity: Quine's critique of de re necessity
3.4. The revival of de re necessity and essentialism
3.4.1 Possible worlds
3.4.2 A posteriori necessity
3.5. Powers and modality
Chapter 4. Causality
4.2 Some Neo-Humean developments
4.3 Aristotle's theory of causation
4.4 Are there active and passive powers involved in causation?
4.5. Mental Causation
Chapter 5. Determinism and Free Will
5.2. A brief history of compatibilism and incompatibilism
5.3 The Consequence argument and the fortunes of incompatibilism
5.4 Moral responsibility and Free Will
5.5 Free will and the 'new dispositionalism'
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