Means, Ends, and Persons: The Meaning and Psychological Dimensions of Kant's Humanity Formula

ISBN : 9780190913748

Robert Audi
192 ページ
140 x 210 mm

This book is a full-scale account of the morally important ideas of treating persons merely as means and treating them as ends. Audi clarifies these independently of Kant, but with implications for understanding him, and presents a theory of conduct that enhances their usefulness both in ethical theory and in practical ethics.


Preface and Acknowledgments
Part One
The Ethics of Protecting Persons
Chapter 1
The Instrumental Treatment of Persons
Means and Ends
Instrumental Versus End-Regarding Treatment
Treating Solely as a Means versus Merely as a Means
Chapter 2
Instrumental Treatment as Human Conduct
The Motivation and Controllability of Merely Instrumental Conduct
Constraints, Moral Character, and Self-Control
Motivation, Constraints, and the Appraisal of Character
Chapter 3
Action, Treatment and Conduct
Action, Endeavor, and Consequence
Two Levels of Behavioral Description
Conduct as a Morally Important Category
Manners of Action Versus Actions as Defined by Manner
Chapter 4
The Wrong-Making Character of Merely Instrumental Treatment
Thick and Thin Moral Questions
Substantive and Contrastive Views of Merely Instrumental Treatment
Persons as Ends Versus Good Ends for Persons
Internal and External Goods for Persons
Part Two
The Ethics of Respecting Persons
Chapter 5
Treating Others as Ends in Themselves
Caring about the Good of Others
Two Kinds of Normativity
Descriptive Grounds of End-regarding Treatment
Chapter 6
End-Regarding Treatment and Respect for Persons
Good Deeds, Good Reasons, and Good Conduct
End-Regarding Treatment, Intention, and Interpersonal Behavior
The Particularity of Persons and the Interchangeability of Means
Chapter 7
Autonomy and the Moral Significance of Our Self-Conceptions
Psychological Dispositions and the Basis of Consent
Respect for Persons, Point of View, and Informed Rational Desire
End-Regarding Treatment and Respecting Moral Rights
Conduct Toward Persons versus Behavior Affecting Them
Chapter 8
Conduct, Intention, and Will
Motivational Self-Control and the Scope of Intentions
The Manner of Interpersonal Conduct
Moral Requirements and the Content of Intention
Conduct Requirements and the Love Commandments


Robert Audi is an internationally known contributor to ethics. He has published books and numerous papers in the field, and he lectures widely in ethics, moral psychology, philosophy of action, and related areas.