The Roots of Goodness and Resistance to Evil: Inclusive Caring, Moral Courage, Altruism Born of Suffering, Active Bystandership, and Heroism

ISBN : 9780195382037

Ervin Staub
408 ページ
193 x 253 mm

In The Roots of Goodness and Resistance to Evil, Ervin Staub draws on his extensive experiences in scholarship and intervention to illuminate the socializing experiences, education, and trainings that lead children and adults to become helpers/active bystanders and rescuers, acting to prevent violence and create peaceful and harmonious societies. The book collects Staub's most important and influential articles and essays in the field, compiling a variety of examples of helping behaviors as well as discussions of why we should help and not harm others. He addresses a wide range of such behaviors, from helping people in everyday physical or psychological distress, to active bystandership in response to harmful actions by youth toward their peers (bullying), to endangering one's life to save someone in immediate danger, or rescuing intended victims of genocide. Staub engages with ways to promote active bystandership in the service of preventing violence, helping people to heal from violence, and building caring societies. He explores the range of experiences that lead to active bystandership, including socialization by parents, teachers (and peers) in childhood, education, experiential learning, and public education through media. He examines what personal characteristics or dispositions result from such experiences, which in turn lead to caring and helping. Staub also considers how circumstances influence people-both individuals and whole groups-and how they join with personal dispositions to determine whether people remain passive in the face of others' need or instead help others and behave in morally courageous or even heroic ways. He considers how moral and caring values can be subverted by circumstances, and outlines ways to resist that possiblity. He also considers how past victimization and the resulting psychological woundedness, which can lead to "defensive violence" or hostility toward people and the world, may be transformed by other experiences, leading to "altruism born of suffering." The book draws on research and theory as well as work in applied settings. Ultimately this book will help readers explore how we can turn ourselves into active, helpful people and what we need to do to create peaceful and caring societies.


Preface. Why Have I Been Studying Goodness (and Evil and its Prevention)?
Chapter 1. Introduction, Examples, and Overview of the Book
Chapter 2. Why We Should Help and Not Harm Others
Chapter 3. Inclusive Caring, Moral Courage, Altruism Born of Suffering, and Active Bystandership: Their Roots in Socialization and Experience
Chapter 4. Basic Psychological Needs, Caring and Violence, and Optimal Human Functioning
Chapter 5. Learning by Doing: The Evolution of Helping and Caring (and of Violence) through One's Own Actions
Chapter 6. Passivity: Bystanders to Genocide
Chapter 7. The Psychology of Rescue: Perpetrators, Bystanders, and Heroic Helpers
Chapter 8. Psychology and Morality in Genocide and Violent Conflict: Perpetrators, Passive Bystanders, and Rescuers
Chapter 9. Helping Psychologically Wounded Children Heal
Chapter 10. Altruism Born of Suffering: The Roots of Caring and Helping after Victimization and Other Trauma
Chapter 11. The Heroism of Survivors: Survivors Saving Themselves and the Impact on Their Lives
Chapter 12. Heroes and Other Committed Individuals
Chapter 13. How Can We Become Good Bystanders in Response to Needs around Us and in the World?
Chapter 14. Understanding Police Violence and Active Bystandership in Preventing It
Chapter 15. Many Children are Happy in School, Others are Bullied, Some Excluded
Active Bystandership Helps
Chapter 16. Training Active Bystanders in Schools and Other Settings
Chapter 17. Educational Experiences (Trainings) as Routes to Helping, Non-aggression, Active Bystandership,
and Heroism
Chapter 18. Advancing Healing and Reconciliation
Chapter 19. Public Education to Promote Active Bystandership for Resisting Violence, for Reconciliation, and
for Peace: Musekeweya, an Educational Radio Drama in Rwanda, and Its Extensions
Chapter 20. Preventing Violence and Terrorism and Promoting Positive Relations between Dutch and Muslim Communities in Amsterdam
Chapter 21. The Impact of the Staub Model on Policy Making in Amsterdam Regarding Polarization and Radicalization
Chapter 22. The Roots of Helping, Heroic Rescue, and Resistance to and the Prevention of Mass Violence: Active Bystandership in Extreme Times and in Building Peaceful Societies
Chapter 23. Moral Courage and Heroism Revisited
Chapter 24. Nonviolence as a Way to Address Injustice and Group Conflict
Chapter 25. An Unassuming Hero
Chapter 26. Bystandership: One Can Make a Difference
An Interview with Ervin Staub (2012)
Chapter 27. Summary Tables on the Origins of Active Bystandership, Heroism, and Moral Courage
Chapter 28. Creating Caring Societies: Values, Culture, Institutions


Ervin Staub is Professor Emeritus and the founding director of the doctoral program in the psychology of peace and violence at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He previously taught at Harvard University. He has studied the roots of caring, helping, and altruism and their development in children and adults, as well as the roots of genocide and other violence between groups, their prevention, and reconciliation. He is the past president of two societies, editor or co-editor of four books, and the author of six books and many articles and book chapters. He has worked in a variety of real-world settings, in schools to develop caring classrooms and active bystandership by students, and in Rwanda to promote reconciliation.