The Neurobiology of Addiction

ISBN : 9780199562152

Trevor Robbins; Barry J. Everitt; David Nutt
318 ページ
177 x 253 mm

In the past two decades, there have been astonishing advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis and nature of drug addiction. We now know the initial molecular sites of action, at identified receptors, of virtually all of the major drugs of abuse including cocaine, heroin, and amphetamine, as well as legal drugs such as nicotine and alcohol. We also understand the main components of a 'reward system' and its connections to major brain regions involved in motivation and emotion, such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. The Neurobiology of Addiction describes the latest advances in our understanding of addiction. It brings together world class researchers to debate the nature and extent of addiction, as well as its causes, consequences, and treatment. The focus of the book is on the brain processes underlying addiction, in terms of neural systems, neurochemical basis, and molecular changes. Several types of addiction are discussed ranging from illicit drugs - cocaine, amphetamine, and heroin to legal drugs - alcohol and nicotine. In addition, it explores increasingly common behavioural addictions such as gambling and obesity. Included are chapters on vulnerability to addiction, genetic factors, opponent motivational processes, animal models, relapse, cognitive deficits associated with drug abuse, new pharmacological treatments, and current controversies concerning different neuropsychological theories of addiction. Throughout, it reports on cutting edge research using brain imaging, and state of the art molecular methodology. The book will make fascinating reading for students and teachers in the field of neuroscience, pharmacology and psychology, as well as experts in the field.


Introduction. The neurobiology of drug addiction: new vistas
Neurobiological mechanisms for opponent motivational processes in addiction
Neural mechanisms underlying the vulnerability to develop compulsive drug-seeking habits and addiction
The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues
Psychological and neural mechanisms of relapse
Neurobiology of nicotine dependence
Cognitive and emotional consequences of binge drinking: role of amygdala and prefrontal cortex
The neurobiology of pathological gambling and drug addiction: an overview and new findings
Overlapping neuronal circuits in addiction and obesity: evidence of systems pathology
Neurogenetic studies of alcohol addiction
Genetics of addictions: strategies for addressing heterogeneity and polygenicity of substance use disorders
Positron emission tomography imaging studies of dopamine receptors in primate models of addiction
Context-induced relapse to drug seeking: a review
Transcriptional mechanisms of addiction: role of changes in FosB
Parallel studies of cocaine-related neural and cognitive impairment in humans and monkeys
Acute effects of cocaine on the neurobiology of cognitive control
Evidence-based treatments of addiction


Professor Robbins is Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience and Head of the Department of Experimental Psychology at the University of Cambridge. He is also Director of the Cambridge MRC-Wellcome Trust Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute (BCNI), the main objective of which is to inter-relate basic and clinical research in psychiatry and neurology for such conditions as Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's diseases, frontal lobe injury, schizophrenia, depression, drug addiction, and developmental syndromes such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The BCNI has a particular focus on pharmacological treatments in neuropsychiatry and neurological disorders and how they actually work. Trevor has been President of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society (1992-1994) and he won that Society's inaugural Distinguished Achievement Award in 2001. He was also President of the British Association of Psychopharmacology from 1996 to 1997. He a Fellow of the Royal Society; David is currently the Edmond J Safra Professor of Neuropsychopharmacology and Head of the Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Molecular Imaging at Imperial College London He received his undergraduate training in medicine at Cambridge and Guy's Hospital, and continued training in neurology to MRCP. After completing his psychiatric training in Oxford, he continued there as a lecturer and then later as a Wellcome Senior Fellow in psychiatry. He then spent two years as Chief of the Section of Clinical Science in the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in NIH, Bethesda, USA. On returning to England in 1988 he set up the Psychopharmacology Unit in Bristol, an interdisciplinary research grouping spanning the departments of Psychiatry and Pharmacology. In December 2008 he joined Imperial College London as the Edmond J Safra Chair in Neuropsychopharmacology to concentrate on development of PET imaging.; Professor Everitt graduated in Zoology and Psychology at Hull University, received a Ph.D. from the University of Birmingham, and undertook post-doctoral research at Birmingham and at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, with the eminent neuroanatomists Tomas Hokfelt and Kjell Fuxe. He was appointed to the Department of Anatomy at the University of Cambridge in 1974, became a Fellow of Downing College in 1976, a tenured University Lecturer and a Director of Studies in Medicine at Downing in 1979. He has served on several national and international advisory committees and has been President of the British Association for Psychopharmacology, the European Brain and Behaviour Society and the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS), a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences (FMedSci), and has been awarded an Honorary D.Sc. by Hull University