Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

ISBN : 9780198520764

Robert E. Newnham
392 ページ
190 x 247 mm

Crystals are sometimes called 'Flowers of the Mineral Kingdom'. In addition to their great beauty, crystals and other textured materials are enormously useful in electronics, optics, acoustics, and many other engineering applications. This book describes the underlying principles of crystal physics and chemistry, covering a wide range of topics, and illustrating numerous applications in many fields of engineering using the most important materials. It has been written at a level suitable for science and engineering students and can be used for teaching a one- or two-semester course. Tensors, matrices, symmetry and structure-property relationships form the main subjects of the book. Whilst tensors and matrices provide the mathematical framework for understanding anisotropy, on which the physical and chemical properties of crystals and textured materials often depend, atomistic arguments are also needed to quantify the property coefficients in various directions. The atomistic arguments are partly based on symmetry and partly on the basic physics and chemistry of materials. After introducing the point groups appropriate for single crystals, textured materials and ordered magnetic structures, the directional properties of many different materials are described: linear and nonlinear elasticity, piezoelectricity and electrostriction, magnetic phenomena, diffusion and other transport properties, and both primary and secondary ferroic behaviour. With crystal optics (its roots in classical mineralogy) having become an important component of the information age, nonlinear optics is described along with the piezo-optics, magneto-optics and electro-optics, and analogous linear and nonlinear acoustic wave phenomena. Enantiomorphism, optical activity, and chemical anisotropy are discussed in the final chapters of the book.


1. Introduction
2. Transformations
3. Symmetry
4. Transformation operators for symmetry elements
5. Tensors and physical properties
6. Thermodynamic relationships
7. Specific heat and entropy
8. Pyroelectricity
9. Dielectric constant
10. Stress and strain
11. Thermal expansion
12. Piezoelectricity
13. Elasticity
14. Magnetic phenomena
15. Nonlinear phenomena
16. Ferroic crystals
17. Electrical resistivity
18. Thermal conductivity
19. Diffusion and ionic conductivity
20. Galvanomagnetic and thermomagnetic phenomena
21. Thermoelectricity
22. Piezoresistance
23. Acoustic waves I
24. Acoustic waves II
25. Crystal optics
26. Dispersion and absorption
27. Photoelasticity and acousto-optics
28. Electro-optic phenomena
29. Nonlinear optics
30. Optical activity and enantiomorphism
31. Magneto-optics
32. Chemical anisotropy


Robert E. Newnham is Alcoa Professor of Solid State Science in the Materials Research Laboratory at The Pennsylvania State University, USA.