Human Sexuality: A Contemporary Introduction

ISBN : 9780195441352

Caroline Pukall
592 ページ
222 x 282 mm

Human Sexuality: A Contemporary Introduction helps students to understand the many perspectives from which human sexuality can be studied. It is the first ground-up Canadian text in this discipline and is skilfully interdisciplinary in its approach. The editor and contributors fuse a biological perspective with important perspectives gained from social and cultural issues, incorporating the latest Canadian research, clinical practice issues, and other up-to-date developments in the field. Written by leading Canadian instructors, researchers, and clinicians in the field, this introduction to human sexuality offers a wealth of contemporary perspectives and a diversity of views. Some of the many topics covered include sexually transmitted infections, sexual orientations, pregnancy and childbirth, and sexually explicit media. Furthermore, a unique stand-alone chapter on communication as well as two chapters devoted to variations in sexual behaviour and sexual dysfunction make this text unique and highly attractive to a broad range of students. Current discussions surrounding contemporary issues facing young adults-such as sexting, the HPV vaccine, Internet pornography, and safer sex negotiation-are also presented. Sometimes shocking and often remarkable, the material throughout is always practical, highly informative, and very contemporary. By offering an even distribution of traditional biological and clinical subject matter for psychology students in combination with key social content for non-majors, this ground-breaking book is an invaluable resource for all students studying human sexuality.


About the Editor
Contributor Biographies
Editor's Preface
From the Publisher
Media and Supplements
1. Perspectives on Sexuality
Katherine S. Sutton, Karen L. Blair, and Caroline F. Pukall
What to Expect from a Sexuality Class?
Sex and Media
A History of Sex and Advertising in Western Culture
Sex in Film and on Television
Sex and the Internet
Safer Sex Messages
Cultural Diversity
Culture and Diversity: Sex and Media in Arabic and Japanese Cultures
A Brief History of Sex Research
Ancient Text
The Middle Ages
Modern History
Research vs Real Life: Observing Sexual Response as It Happens in the Lab
How Have Societal Influences Shaped Views of Sexuality?
Historical Views on Masturbation
History of the Vibrator
History of Sex Education in Canada
Religious and Cultural Views of Sexuality
Sexual Diversity in Canada
Ethical Debate: Should Sexual Orientation Be Considered a Human Right?
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
2. Theoretical Approaches to Studying Human Sexuality
Elke D. Reissing and Heather L. Armstrong
What Is the Reproductive Advantage of Same-Sex Orientation?
Psychological Theories of Sexuality
Psychodynamic Theory
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Research vs Real Life: Should Sex Offenders Avoid Sex?
Social Learning Theory
Social Exchange Theory
Cognitive Theories
Biological Theories of Sexuality
Genetic Theory
Sociobiological Theory
The Dual Control Model of Sexuality
Social Constructionist Theories of Sexuality
Sociological Theory
Social Script Theory
Research vs Real Life: It's Evolution: Casual Sex and Sexual Strategies Theory
Culture and Diversity: I Do-Do You?
Feminist Theory
How Do Theories Inform Clinical Work with Sexual Problems?
Ethical Debate: To What Extent Can You Use Theory to Justify Your Own Sexual Choices?
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
3. Sex Research Methods
Melissa A. Farmer
Participating in a Sex Research Study
Culture and Diversity: Using Research to Explore Sexuality in Asian Canadians
Ethical Debate: "Normal" Sexuality and Clinical Definitions of Sexual Dysfunction
A Historical Overview of Sex Research Methods
Early Texts
Modern Texts
Kinsey's Interview-Based Approach
Masters and Johnson's Observational Approach
Qualitative vs Quantitative Approaches to Research
Sex Research Methods and Designs
Descriptive Designs
Correlational Designs
Experimental and Quasi-experimental Designs
Psychophysiological Approaches to Research
Measures of Genital Response
Quantitative Sensory Testing
Brain Imaging Methods
Relevance of Animal Sexuality
Behavioural Indicators of Sexual Response in Animals
Rodents as Model Organisms
Research vs Real Life: Translation of Animal Research to Human Sexual Functioning
Limitations of Animal Models
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
4. Sexual Anatomy: The Parts, the Pieces, and How They Respond
Caroline F. Pukall and Richard J. Wassersug
Why Would Anyone Want to Become a Eunuch?
Female Genitals
External Genitals
Culture and Diversity: Female Genital Mutilation
Internal Organs
Ethical Debate: The Anatomical Problem with Backroom Abortions
Male Genitals
External Genitals
Research vs Real Life: Circumcision
Internal Organs
Other Areas of Interest: Erogenous Zones
Female Breasts
The Mechanics of Coital Sex
Sexual Response Cycles
Masters and Johnson's Sexual Response Cycle
Other Sexual Response Cycle Models
Comparing the Models: Sexual Function and Dysfunction
Age-Related Decreases in Sexual Response
Sex Differences in Sexual Response
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
5. Sex Hormones and Human Sexuality
Gillian Einstein and Jennifer Blake
The Role of Hormones in Sexuality
What Are Hormones?
Hormone Synthesis
What Are Sex Hormones?
Ethical Debate: Is It a Boy or a Girl?
The Sexual Brain
Sex Hormones and Sexuality in the Reproductive Years
How Hormones Affect Sexuality
Culture and Diversity: Are Females and Males Born or Made?
How Sexual Activity and Other Life Factors Affect Hormone Levels
Oxytocin and Vasopressin: Pleasure, Bonding, and Affiliation
Does the Act of Smelling Sex Hormones Lead to Sexual Behaviour?
Research vs Real Life: Passing the Sniff Test, or What Your T-Shirt Might Be Saying about You
Sex Hormones, Sexuality, and Aging
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
6. Pregnancy and Childbirth
Samantha Waxman and Beverley Chalmers
Facebook "Unlikes" Breastfeeding
Pregnancy Detection
Fetal Development
First Trimester
Second Trimester
Third Trimester
Sexuality during Pregnancy
Choice of Caregiver for Normal Births
Culture and Diversity: The Traditional View of Pregnancy in India
Delivery Options
Vaginal Birth
Research vs Real Life: C-Section-Modern-Day Miracle?
Immediately after the Baby Is Born
The Postpartum Period
Postpartum Emotional Issues
Sexuality during the Postpartum Period
Complicated Pregnancies
Ectopic Pregnancy
Miscarriage (Spontaneous Abortion)
Rh Incompatibility
Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension
Congenital Anomalies
Preterm Birth/Low Birth Weight
Infertility and Reproductive Technologies
Psychological Impact of Infertility
Treatment of Infertility
Assisted Human Reproduction (AHR)
Ethical Debate: Cloning: How Far Is Too Far?
ART-Related Multiple Births
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
7. Contraception and Pregnancy Options
Katherine S. Sutton and Beverly Chalmers
Uh-Oh ...
Ancient Forms of Birth Control
A Brief History of Birth Control in Canada
Ethical Debate: China's One-Child Policy
Modern Methods of Birth Control
Hormonal Contraceptives
Non-hormonal Intra-uterine Devices and Barrier Methods
Surgical Methods
Natural Methods
Birth Control Use around the World
Research vs Real Life: Male Contraceptive Pill/Injection
Birth Control Use in Canada Today
The Psychology of Birth Control
Why Use Birth Control? The Bigger Picture
Choosing Not to Use Birth Control: Sexual Risk-Taking in Canada
Talking to Your Partner about Contraception
Emergency Contraception
The Emergency Contraceptive Pill
Post-coital IUD Insertion
Unwanted Pregnancies
Who Gets Abortions?
A Brief History of Abortion in Canada
Types of Abortions
Culture and Diversity: Abortion around the World
The Psychological Effects of Abortion
The Pro-choice-Pro-life Debate
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
8. Sexually Transmitted Infections: At the Junction of Biology and Behaviour
William A. Fisher and Marc Steben
Judy and Chris
Back to the Future: STIs Past and Present
A Brief History of Syphilis and Herpes
A Brief History of HIV/AIDS
Research vs Real Life: Do Good Values Make Bad Science?
The STI Hit Parade
Bacterial STIs
Viral STIs
Research vs Real Life: HPV Prevention: A Revolution in Women's Health?
Ethical Debate: Which Side Are You On? Stimulating Sexual Interest and Sexual Activity among HIV-Positive Persons
Strange Bedfellows: Other Genital Concerns
STI Screening and STI Testing: How to Approach the Topic with a (Potential) Sexual Partner
Is There a Reasonable Way to Be Sexual in the New Millennium?
Think about Sex
Use Condoms
Culture and Diversity: HIV/AIDS-Prevention Interventions in the United States and South Africa
Get Vaccinated
Take Secondary Prevention Measures
Check Out-but Don't Rely On-Your Partner's Sexual and Injection Drug Use History
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
9. Sexuality over the Life span
Elke D. Reissing and Heather L. Armstrong
Life Stages
Sexuality in Infancy and Early Childhood
Sexuality Education during Childhood
Sexuality in Preadolescence
Sexuality in Adolescence
Sexual Activity during Adolescence
Sexuality among LGBTTIQQ Adolescents
Sexuality in Adulthood
Being Single
Ethical Debate: Sexuality and Disability
Culture and Diversity: Attitudes toward Premarital Sex across Different Cultures
Living Together
Getting Married
Research vs Real Life: Long-Distance Relationships Are Doomed ... Right?
Extradyadic Sex
Sexuality and Older Adults
Physical Effects of Aging and Their Association with Changes in Sexuality
Sexual Activity in Older Adults
Safer Sex among Sexually Active Older Adults
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
10. Gender
Meredith L. Chivers
In What Gender Do We Raise Our Child?
Gender or Sex?
Nature and Nurture: Theoretical Perspectives on Gender and Sexuality
Gender Differences or Similarities in Sexuality?
Masturbation, Numbers of Sexual Partners, Attitudes toward Casual Sex, and Erotica Use
Sexual Orientation
Patterns of Sexual Response
Reporting Biases
Disorders of Sexual Development
Sex Chromosome Variations
Sex Hormone Variations
Physical Traumas and Congenital Variations
Gender Development in Childhood
What Factors Shape a Child's Sense of Gender Identity and Gender Roles?
Ethical Debate: Is It Possible to Raise a Child Genderless?
Gender Variation in Childhood and Adolescence
Trans Identities
Life Experiences and Sexual Orientations of Transmen and Transwomen
Transitioning to the Felt Gender and Sex
Research vs Real Life: Autogynephilia
The Choice Not to Transition
Culture and Diversity: A Third (or More) Gender(s)?
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
11. Sexual/Affectional Orientations and Diversity
Kevin Alderson
Charlie's Struggle with Same-Sex Attraction
Sexual/Affectional Orientations and Identities
Sexual vs Affectional Orientations
Attempts to Measure Sexual/Affectional Orientations
Identity Labels
Prejudice against Same-Sex Oriented Individuals
Conversion Therapy
Research vs Real Life: The Negative Effects of Hate Speech
Theories of Affectional Orientation and Sexual Identity Development
Affectional Orientation Development
Sexual Identity Development
Self-Identification and Identity Disclosure
Self-Identification as Lesbian, Gay, or Bisexual
Identity Disclosure
Culture and Diversity: Global and Cross-Cultural Findings Regarding Sexual Diversity
Ethical Debate: Should You Help a Child Become Gender Conforming?
Relationships and Sex
Intimate Relationships
Bisexuality and Relationships
Same-Sex Sexual Behaviour
LGB Parenting and Adoption
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
12. Attraction, Intimacy, and Love
Kelly B. Smith
Keeping the Magic Alive
Physical Attractiveness
Reciprocity and Uncertainty
Menstrual-Cycle Effects
Do Opposites Attract?
Pick-Up Strategies: What Works for Men, and What Works for Women?
What is Intimacy?
Attachment Theory
Hooking Up and Casual Sex
What Is Love?
Culture and Diversity: Cross-cultural Views on Love
Different Types of Love: Passionate and Companionate
Theories of Love
Research vs Real Life: Attraction, Intimacy, and Love over Time
Love for Objects
Optimal Sexuality
Different Types of Jealousy: Sexual and Emotional
Social Networking Sites and Jealousy
The Role of Online Technologies in Love, Attraction, and Intimacy
Ethical Debate: Infidelity
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
13. Sexual Communication
Uzma S. Rehman and Erin E. Fallis
Let's Talk about Sex
Communication in Intimate Relationships
Couples' Communication Behaviours
Patterns of Couples' Communication
How Do Researchers Study Couples' Communication?
Gender Differences in Heterosexual Couples' Communication
Sexual Communication
Importance of Sexual Communication
Culture and Diversity: Differences in Couples' Communication Styles across Cultures
Why Do Couples Find It Challenging to Talk about Their Sexual Relationship?
Should We Ask Couples to Discuss Sexual Topics for Research Purposes?
Do Same-Sex Couples Have Different Patterns of Sexual Communication than Mixed-Sex Couples Have?
How to Communicate Effectively with One's Partner about Sexuality
Ethical Debate: What Responsibility Do Psychologists Have to Break or Protect Confidentiality If an Individual Discloses Information about Risky Sexual Behaviours?
Research vs Real Life: Who Should Give Children "the Talk," and When Should It Happen?
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
14. Sexual Behaviours and Relationships
Natalie O. Rosen and Sheila MacNeil
A "Friends-With-Benefits" Relationship
Introduction: What Does It Mean to "Have Sex"?
First Sexual Experiences
Expectations of and Reactions to First Sexual Experiences
Ethical Debate: Should Doctors Perform "Revirgination" Surgery for Cultural and Social Reasons?
Sexual Consent
Varieties of Sexual Behaviours
Solitary Sexual Behaviours
Partnered Sexual Behaviours
Research vs Real Life: Prevalence of Oral Sex among Adolescents
Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Preferences
Sexual Satisfaction
Sexual Preferences
Culture and Diversity: Acculturation and Sexuality in East Asian Canadians
Use of Sex Toys to Increase Sexual Pleasure
Diversity in Sexual Relationships
Monogamous Relationships
Non-monogamous Relationships
Theoretical Perspectives on How Media Influences Sexuality
Positive and Negative Influences of Media on Sexuality
The Internet
Sexually Explicit Material
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
15. Variations in Sexual Behaviour
Katherine S. Sutton and Caroline F. Pukall
Lord Morpheous Speaks, and You'd Better Listen!
Introduction: What Is "Normal" Sexual Behaviour?
How Are Atypical Sexual Behaviours Defined?
Diagnosing Paraphilic Disorders
What Are the Commonly Identified Atypical Sexual Behaviours?
Paraphilias and Paraphilic Disorders that Involve Consenting Partners
Ethical Debate: Voluntary Amputation
Paraphilic Disorders that Involve Non-consenting People: The Courtship Disorders
Pedophilic Disorder
Other Specified Paraphilic Disorders
Culture and Diversity: The Child Sex Trade in Southeast Asia
What Factors Play a Role in the Development and Maintenance of Paraphilias/Paraphilic Disorders?
Psychoanalytic Theory
Behavioural Theory
Neurological Findings
Theories of Development and Maintenance of Pedophilic Disorder
Sex Differences in Paraphilias
Assessment of Paraphilic Disorders
Treatment of Paraphilic Disorders
CBT and Relapse-Prevention Techniques
Self-Esteem and Social-Skills Training
Satiation Therapy
Research vs Real Life: Sex Offender Registries
Orgasmic Reconditioning
Aversion Therapy
Community-Based Support Programs
Medical Treatments
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
16. Sexual Dysfunctions
Peggy J. Kleinplatz
A New Baby
Causes of Sexual Problems
Intrapsychic Factors in the Development of Sexual Problems
Interpersonal/Relational Factors in the Development of Sexual Problems
Cultural/Psychosocial Factors in the Development of Sexual Problems
Culture and Diversity: BDSM and the DSM
Organic Factors in the Development of Sexual Problems
Sexual Difficulties in Men and Women
Sexual Difficulties in Men
Sexual Difficulties in Women
Sexual Desire Disorders in Men and Women
Research vs Real Life: Botox Injections for Vaginismus
Therapy for Sexual Difficulties
Sex Therapy in the New Millennium
Ethical Debate: Pink Viagra for Women?
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
17. The Dark Side of Sex: Assault and Harassment
Scott T. Ronis
Trying to Move On: A Rape Survivor's Story
Introduction: Why Is It Important to Understand the Dark Side of Sex?
Sexual Assault and Rape
Prevalence and Incidence of Sexual Assault
Human Sex Trafficking
Effects of Sexual Assault
Reasons for Sexual Assault
Culture and Diversity: Marital Rape Lost in Translation
Practical Advice Following a Sexual Assault
Legal Sanctions for Sexual Assault
Sexual Victimization of Men
Ethical Debate: Ethical Issues in Rounding Up the Usual "Sex-spects"
Childhood Sexual Abuse
Sexual Harassment
Research vs Real Life: Should We Treat Juvenile Sexual Offenders Like Adult Sexual Offenders?
Sexual Harassment as an Employee
Sexual Harassment as a Student
Effects of Sexual Harassment
Reasons for Sexual Harassment
Legal Sanctions for Sexual Harassment
Effects of Stalking
Characteristics of Stalkers
Reasons for Stalking
Legal Sanctions for Stalking
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
18. Selling and Buying Sex
Kevin Alderson
What Do You Do With Tracy?
Growth of the Sex Industry
Selling and Buying Sex
Sex Trade Work
A Snapshot of the History of STW in Canada
Legal Aspects of STW
Types of STW
Culture and Diversity: The Decriminalization of STW in New Zealand and Australia
Who Works in the Sex Trade, and Why?
If You Sell Sex, Do You Enjoy Sex?
Underage STWs
The Impact of STW on Physical and Psychological Health
Male STWs
Exotic Dancing
Ethical Debate: What Approach Should We Take to Exotic Dancing in Canada?
Pornography, Erotica, and Sexually Explicit Material
Effects of Consuming SEM
Research vs Real Life: How about Erotica Instead of Violence on Television?
Internet SEM
Addiction to SEM
Being a "Porn Star"
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
19. Sex Education in Canada
Stephanie C. Boyer & Shannon M. Coyle
Abracadabra: Vagina!
Sex Education in Canada
Goals and Principles
Curriculum and Delivery
Effectiveness of Sex Education: How Is Canada Doing?
Alternative Forms of Sex Education
Parents and Peers
Research vs Real Life: Does Talking about Sex Lead to Sex?
Barriers to Sex Education
Institutional Barriers
Socio-demographic Factors
Culture and Diversity: Sex Education in Canadian Aboriginal Populations
Sex Education for Older Adults
Sex Education for Individuals with Disabilities
Ethical Debate: Sexuality in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities
Chapter Summary
Debate Questions
Review Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading and Viewing
Photo Credits