ISBN : 9780199920402
Philosophical Dilemmas: A Pro and Con Introduction to the Major Questions and Philosophers, Fourth Edition, outlines the classic arguments made by philosophers through the ages. It features sixty-three brief topical essays by author Phil Washburn organized around thirty-one fundamental philosophical questions like "Does God exist?" "Is morality relative?" and "Are we free?" Each essay takes a definite stand and promotes it vigorously, creating a sharp contrast between the two positions and giving each abstract theory a more personal and believable "voice." The accessible writing style and conflicting answers encourage students to examine the different positions and to think carefully about which essay makes the stronger case. This fourth edition, a major revision, now enriches the discussion of each philosophical question by adding fifty-four brief essays-two in each chapter-on great philosophers who held conflicting viewpoints on the issues covered. Additionally, the chapters have been rearranged so that these essays and the philosophers discussed appear in approximate chronological order, from Plato and Protagoras to Wittgenstein and Searle. The text is enhanced by numerous pedagogical features including an introduction to each issue, key terms, chapter summaries, study questions after each essay, chronologies, a glossary, and an appendix on how to write an essay. A Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/washburn contains online sources and self-test questions for students and numerous instructor resources: introductions to the issues; summaries of the topical essays; summary points, PowerPoint-based slides, and test questions for the historical essays; answers to the critical questions that follow each essay; test questions on the topical essays; suggestions for class discussions; and a list of online resources.
"CRITICAL QUESTIONS" FOLLOW EACH ESSAY, AND AN "UNDERSTANDING THE DILEMMA" SECTION ENDS EACH CHAPTER.
1. Philosophy and Socrates
1. HAPPINESS, OBLIGATIONS, AND VALUES
1.1 IS MORALITY RELATIVE?
2. Protagoras and the Sophists
1.2 CAN WE UNDERSTAND HAPPINESS?
5. The Hellenistic Age and Skepticism
1.3 IS PLEASURE THE ONLY VALUE?
7. Marcus Aurelius
1.4 IS SOCIETY THE SOURCE OF VALUES?
1.5 IS HAPPINESS THE STANDARD OF MORALITY?
10. Kant and the Age of Reason
11. Mill and Happiness
1.6 ARE WE ALWAYS SELFISH?
12. Hume and the Moral Sense
1.7 CURRENT CONTROVERSY: SHOULD DOCTORS EVER END PEOPLE'S LIVES?
2. GOD, IMMORTALITY, AND FAITH
2.1 IS THE SOUL IMMORTAL?
14. Plato and the Immortal Soul
2.2 IS FAITH AN ANSWER?
2.3 IS IT NECESSARY THAT GOD EXISTS?
2.4 IS THERE EVIDENCE THAT GOD EXISTS?
2.5 CAN GOD ALLOW INNOCENT SUFFERING?
2.6 CURRENT CONTROVERSY: IS BUDDHISM PHILOSOPHY?
3. KNOWLEDGE, SCIENCE, AND TRUTH
3.1 IS CERTAINTY THE STANDARD OF KNOWLEDGE?
26. Descartes and Certainty
3.2 IS EXPERIENCE THE SOURCE OF ALL KNOWLEDGE?
27. Locke and Experience
3.3 CAN WE KNOW ABOUT THE EXTERNAL WORLD?
3.4 IS IT POSSIBLE THAT WE KNOW NOTHING AT ALL?
31. Hume and Skepticism
32. Kant's Copernican Revolution
3.5 DOES SCIENCE GIVE US REAL KNOWLEDGE?
3.6 CURRENT CONTROVERSY: DOES TRUTH EXIST?
4. LIBERTY, EQUALITY, JUSTICE
4.1 IS EQUALITY THE HIGHEST SOCIAL VALUE?
4.2 IS SOCIETY BASED ON A CONTRACT?
37. Locke and the Social Contract
4.3 IS LIBERTY THE HIGHEST SOCIAL VALUE?
40. Mill and Liberty
4.4 IS CAPITALISM JUST?
4.5 DO INDIVIDUALS HAVE ABSOLUTE HUMAN RIGHTS?
4.6. CURRENT CONTROVERSY: IS RACE ESSENTIAL TO IDENTITY?
5. FREE WILL, MIND, AND HUMAN NATURE
5.1 IS THE MIND NOTHING BUT THE BRAIN?
45. Descartes and Dualism
5.2 ARE WE FREE?
5.3 ARE SCIENTIFIC LAWS COMPATIBLE WITH FREE WILL?
49. Hume and Free Will
5.4 ARE WE RESPONSIBLE FOR OUR ACTIONS?
5.5 CAN COMPUTERS THINK?
No: Mentalist. "People vs. Machines"
5.6 CURRENT CONTROVERSY: ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN PHILOSOPHICALLY SIGNIFICANT?
APPENDIX: HOW TO WRITE AN ESSAY