The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of AI

ISBN : 9780197601440

Markus D. Dubber; Frank Pasquale; Sunit Das
896 Pages
171 x 248 mm
Pub date
Oct 2021
Oxford Handbooks
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  • Locates ethical analysis of artificial intelligence in the context of other modes of normative analysis, including legal, regulatory, philosophical, and policy approaches
  • Interrogates artificial intelligence within the context of related fields of technological innovation, including machine learning, blockchain, big data, and robotics
  • Broadens the conversation about the ethics of artificial intelligence beyond computer science and related fields to include many other fields of scholarly endeavour, including the social sciences, humanities, and the professions (law, medicine, engineering, etc.)
  • Invites critical analysis of all aspects of-and participants in-the wide and continuously expanding artificial intelligence complex, from production to commercialization to consumption, from technical experts to venture capitalists to self-regulating professionals to government officials to journalists to the general public

This volume tackles a quickly-evolving field of inquiry, mapping the existing discourse as part of a general attempt to place current developments in historical context; at the same time, breaking new ground in taking on novel subjects and pursuing fresh approaches.
The term "A.I." is used to refer to a broad range of phenomena, from machine learning and data mining to artificial general intelligence. The recent advent of more sophisticated AI systems, which function with partial or full autonomy and are capable of tasks which require learning and 'intelligence', presents difficult ethical questions, and has drawn concerns from many quarters about individual and societal welfare, democratic decision-making, moral agency, and the prevention of harm. This work ranges from explorations of normative constraints on specific applications of machine learning algorithms today-in everyday medical practice, for instance-to reflections on the (potential) status of AI as a form of consciousness with attendant rights and duties and, more generally still, on the conceptual terms and frameworks necessarily to understand tasks requiring intelligence, whether "human" or "A.I."
Supplementary material available


Part I. Introduction & Overview
1. The Artificial Intelligence of Ethics of AI: An Introductory Overview
Joanna Bryson
2. The Ethics of Ethics of AI: Mapping the Field
Thomas Powers, Delaware & Jean-Gabriel Ganascia
3. Ethics of AI in Context: Society & Culture
Judith Donath

Part II. Frameworks & Modes
4. Why Industry Self-regulation Will Not Deliver 'Ethical AI': A Call for Legally Mandated Techniques of 'Human Rights by Design'
Karen Yeung, Andrew Howes and Ganna Pogrebna
5. Private Sector AI: Ethics and Incentives
Tom Slee
6. Normative Modes: Codes & Standards
Paula Boddington
7. Normative Modes: Professional Ethics
Urs Gasser

Part III. Concepts & Issues
8. Fairness and the Concept of 'Bias'
Safiya Umoja Noble
9. Accountability in Computer Systems
Joshua Kroll
10. Transparency
Nick Diakopoulos
11. Responsibility
Virginia Dignum
12. The Concept of Handoff as a Model for Ethical Analysis and Design
Helen Nissenbaum & Deirdre Mulligan
13. Race and Gender
Timnit Gebru
14. The Future of Work in the Age of AI: Displacement, Augmentation, or Control?
Karen Levy & Pegah Moradi
15. The Rights of Artificial Intelligences
John Basl
16. The Singularity: Sobering up About Merging with AI
Susan Schneider
17. Do Sentient AIs Have Rights? If So, What Kind?
Mark Kingwell
18. Autonomy
Michael Wheeler
19. Troubleshooting AI and Consent
Meg Leta Jones
20. Judgment, Error, and Authority in the Codification of Law
Norman Spaulding
21. Sexuality
John Danaher

Part IV. Perspectives & Approaches
22. Computer Science
Benjamin Kuipers
23. Engineering
Jason Millar
24. Designing Robots Ethically Without Designing Ethical Robots: A Perspective from Cognitive Science
Ron Chrisley
25. Economics
Anton Korinek
26. Statistics
Martin Wells
27. Automating Origination: Perspectives from the Humanities
Avery Slater
28. Philosophy
David Gunkel
29. The Complexity of Otherness: Anthropological contributions to robots and AI
Kathleen Richardson
30. Calculative Composition: The Ethics of Automating Design
Shannon Mattern
31. Global South
Chinmayi Arun
32. East Asia
Danit Gal
33. Artificial Intelligence and Inequality in the Middle East: The Political Economy of Inclusion
Nagla Rizk
34. Europe's struggle to set global AI standards
Andrea Renda

Part V. Cases & Applications
35. The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence in Transportation
Bryant Walker Smith
36. Military
Jai Galliott
37. The Ethics of AI in Biomedical Research, Medicine and Public Health
Effy Vayena & Alessandro Blasimme
38. Law: Basic Questions
Harry Surden
39. Law: Criminal Law
Chelsea Barabas
40. Law: Public Law & Policy: Notice, Predictability, and Due Process
Kiel Brennan-Marquez
41. Law: Immigration & Refugee Law
Petra Molnar
42. Education
Elana Zeide
43. Algorithms and the Social Organization of Work
Ifeoma Ajunwa
44. Smart City Ethics
Ellen Goodman

About the author: 

Edited by Markus D. Dubber, Professor of Law & Criminology and Director of the Centre for Ethics, University of Toronto, Edited by Frank Pasquale, Piper & Marbury Professor of Law, University of Maryland, and Edited by Sunit Das, Associate Professor in the Department of Surgery, University of Toronto
Markus Dubber leads an interdisciplinary initiative, "Ethics of AI in Context," as director of the University of Toronto's Centre for Ethics, which facilitates collaboration among a diverse group of university and non-university scholars and researchers from a wide range of backgrounds and perspectives. He also has extensive editorial experience, including as co-editor of several Oxford Handbooks and editor-in-chief of Oxford Handbooks Online (Law). 
Sunit Das (University of Toronto, Medicine) has conducted research on the role of AI in medicine as a neurosurgeon at Toronto's St. Michael's Hospital, a neuroscientist in the Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, and faculty affiliate of the Ethics of AI Lab at the Centre for Ethics, University of Toronto. 
Frank Pasquale (School of Law, University of Maryland) has published extensively on the law, policy, and ethics of artificial intelligence and cognate fields (including algorithmic accountability, machine learning, and big data). He has served on the Council on Big Data, Ethics, and Society, the Academic Council of the AINow Institute, and the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics. His 2015 book The Black Box Society developed a social theory of reputation, search, and finance, while proposing pragmatic reforms to improve the information economy.

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