Latin America in the Modern World (2nd edition)

ISBN : 9780197574089

Virginia Garrard; Peter Henderson; Bryan McCann
560 Pages
191 x235 mm
Pub date
Jun 2022
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Latin America in the Modern World is the first text to situate the history of Latin America within a wider global narrative. Written by leading scholars, the book focuses on five themes: state formation; the construction of national identity through popular culture and religion; economics and commodities; race, class, and gender; and the environment. Emphasizing the distinct experiences of each of the Latin American countries, the book provides students with an entry point into understanding this vital region. Instead of suggesting that all Latin American nations have an interchangeable heritage, the authors seek to clearly identify themes, topics, people, and intellectual currents that help to knit the history of modern Latin America into a coherent category of study. While providing in-depth coverage of the history of the three largest Latin American countries (Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina), Latin America in the Modern World also offers case studies from almost all of the countries, including Central American and Andean nations.


List of Maps
Note on Spellings
About the Authors
The Land and the People
The Indigenous Peoples
The Iberians and the Africans
The Conquest (Encounter) and Its Consequences
The Conquest of Mexico
The Conquest of Peru
Brazil's Conquest Experiences
The Consequences of the Conquest: The Columbian Exchange
Colonial Administration and Economics
The Colonial Administration
The Colonial Economy
Colonial Society
The Elite, the Middle Sectors, and the Issue of Race
Changes in the Eighteenth Century
The Bourbon Reforms and the Enlightenment, 1713-1808
Selected Readings
Part One The Early Nineteenth-Century Search for National Identity to 1875
Chapter 1: Latin America in the Age of Revolution, 1789-1820s
Global Connections
The Causes of Independence, 1789-1810
The External Causes of Independence
The Internal Grievances
The Haitian Revolution, 1789-1804
Slavery in Saint-Domingue
The Great Slave Rebellion
The Environment Assists the Haitian Revolutionaries
Violence and New Racial Hierarchies at the Dawn of the Republic
The Liberation Movement in Spanish South America, 1808-1825
The Quest for Autonomy
The War in Northern South America, 1810-1816
Independence in the Southern Cone
Patriot Success in the North and the Andes, 1816-1825
Independence in Mexico, 1810-1822
The Hidalgo Rebellion
Morelos's Insurgency
Iturbide and the Triumph of Criollo Patriotism
Brazil's Path to Independent Empire, 1807-1822
The Portuguese Court in Brazil
The Loyal Caribbean, 1800-1860s
Sugar and Slavery in the Caribbean
Retaining the Colonial Order
Key Terms
Selected Readings
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: The United States and the Haitian Revolution
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Manuela Saenz de Thorne CULTURE: National Anthems
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva
Chapter 2: Latin America: Regionalism and First Attempts at State Formation
Global Connections
The Breakdown of the Spanish Viceroyalties, 1825-1850s
Bolivar's Visionary Plans Fail
The Viceroyalty of La Plata Continues to Fragment, 1820s-1850s
Argentina's Unitarians and the Federalists
Buenos Aires versus the Provinces
Rosas versus Sarmiento
The Brazilian Counterexample: Unity despite Regionalism, 1822-1845
The Contours of Empire
The Regency Revolts
The Breakdown of New Spain and the Demise of the United Provinces of Central America, 1821-1835
Iturbide's Empire
Mexican National Politics from Iturbide to the Texas Rebellion
Regionalism and the Demise of the UPCA, 1823-1840
Growing Tensions in the UPCA
The Collapse of the Union
Regionalism and Caudillos, 1820s-1870s
Characteristics of a Caudillo
Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia
Antonio Abad Huachaca
Mexico Loses More Territory: The Effects of Manifest Destiny, 1835-1853
The Idea of Manifest Destiny
The Mexican War
The Era of Filibusters
William Walker and Nicaragua
Liberal and Conservative Visions of State Formation, 1830-1875
An Overview of the Competing Visions
The Colombian Constitution of 1863: Extreme Federalism
Extreme Centralism: The Case of Chile, 1833-1860
The Economic Debate: Free Trade versus Protectionism
The War of the Triple Alliance, 1864-1870
The Conduct of the War
Results of the Conflict
Liberals, Conservatives, and the Catholic Church, 1830s-1880s
The Mexican Reforma
Garcia Morena and the Catholic Nation of Ecuador
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Women Travelers in the Andean Nations
ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: Domingos Jose de Almeida: Race and Rebellion in Nineteenth-Century Brazil
THE ENVIRONMENT: The 1837 Cholera Epidemic
Key Terms
Selected Readings
Chapter 3: Exclusion and Inclusion: Everyday People, 1825-1880s
Global Connections
Indian Subjects Become Indigenous Citizens, 1820s-1889
The End of Indian Tribute
Communal Land Issues in El Salvador and Guatemala
Land Conflicts in Bolivia
The End of the Transatlantic Slave Trade and the Long Path to the Abolition of Slavery in Latin America, 1820s-1880s
Sugar in the Americas
Environmental Factors Intensify Cuba's Sugar Production
Slave Trade and Abolition in Cuba
Abolition in Brazil, the End of Empire/Creation of the Old Republic
The Rise of Popular Religion, 1830s-1890s
The Emergence of Popular Catholicism
Political, Social, and Economic Responses of the Popular Classes, 1840s-1880s
Popular Liberalism and Conservativism in Mexico
Popular Liberals and Popular Conservatives in Colombia
The Popular Classes and the Economy
Social Banditry in Mexico and Brazil
Women and Families in Latin America, 1820s-1875
Women, Social Expectations, and the Law
Patriarchy and Poor Rural Women
Patriarchy and Poor Urban Women
Haciendas and Urban Life: The Role of Elites, 1830s-1880s
Elites and Comparative Ranching in the Rio de la Plata Basin
Mexican Haciendas
Urban Life in Lima
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Photographs of Enslaved Brazilians
CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Virgin of the Angels: A US Protestant Missionary (Mattie Crawford) Views Popular Religion
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Mandeponay, a Chiriguano Leader in Bolivia
Key Terms
Selected Readings
Part Two Progress and Modernization: Commodities, Railroads, Neocolonialism, and Race, 1875-1929
Chapter 4: Progress and Modernization: The Elite's Strategy, 1870-1929
Global Connections
Philosophy and Principles of Modernization: Positivism and Social Darwinism, 1870s-1900s
The Ideas behind Positivism and Social Darwinism
Positivism and Social Darwinism in Latin America
The Quest for Order, 1870s-1900s
Argentina under the Liberals
Mexico under Porfirio Diaz
Creating the Modern Latin American Military: The Case of Chile
Foreign Investment, 1870s-1900s
Foreign Investment in Mexico
British Investment in Argentina
Immigration, 1870s-1900s
Immigration in the Southern Cone
Immigrants and Race
Products for Export, 1870s-1920s
Beef and Wheat in Argentina and Uruguay
Banana Cultivation and Its Consequences
Bananas and the Environment
Railroads and Other Technologies, 1870s-1900s
Railroads in Brazil and Mexico
Railroads in the Andean Nations
Refrigeration and Other Technologies
Elite Women in the Age of Progress, 1870s-1900
Social Motherhood
Post-independence Liberalism and Elite Women
New Roles in Education and Healthcare
Key Terms
Selected Readings
Chapter 5: Worlds Connecting: Latin America in an Imperial Age
Global Connections
The Growing Presence of the United States, 1890s-1920s
The Cuban Independence Movement of 1895
The US Intervention and the Spanish American War
Cuba under the Platt Amendment, 1899-1934
Protecting the American Lake
The Panama Canal and the Conquest of the Tropics
The US Occupations of the Dominican Republic and Haiti
Augusto Sandino and the US Occupation of Nicaragua, 1909-1933
The Latin American Reaction to US Aggression, 1890s-1920s
The Baltimore Affair
Latin Americans Reflect on the Yankee Menace
Territorial Readjustments and South American Imperialism, 1878-1929
Events Leading to the War of the Pacific
The War of the Pacific: Conflict and Resolution
Foreign Capital, the Automobile, and New Sources of Energy, 1900-1920s
Petroleum in Venezuela
Oil and Environmental Disaster in Mexico
The Rubber Industry and Fordlandia
The Formative Years of Middle-Class Feminism, 1900-1930
Changing Social Behavior: The Woman Question
Paulina Luisi: Feminist and Physician
The Quest for Married Women's Property Rights in Argentina
The Role of the United States during South America's Roaring Twenties
The United States and the Roaring Twenties in Colombia
The Roaring Twenties in Peru
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Conflict between Elites and the Popular Class
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Soccer in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Protestant Missionaries
Key Terms
Selected Readings
Chapter 6: Progress and Its Discontents, 1880-1929
Global Connections
Consequences of Urbanization, 1880-1920
Urbanization in Argentina
Urbanization in Uruguay
The Old Republic and the Modernization of Rio de Janeiro
The Urban Environment and Public Parks
The Seamier Side of Urban Life in Mexico
Crime and Disease in Andean Cities
The Rise of the Middle Class, 1890s-1920s
The Middle Class in Argentina
The Middle Class in Peru
Literary Giants: Machado de Assis and Rodo
Indigenous People and Liberal Rule, 1880s-1920s
Indigenous People in Mexico
The Andean Republics
Rural Conflict in Brazil: Canudos
The Mexican Revolution: The Decade of Violence, 1910-1920
The Failed Transition from the Porfiriato
From Reform to Revolution
Women at War: The Soldadera
The Constitution of 1917
CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Redemption of Ham
COMMODITIES AND ECONOMICS: Brazil's Cacao Boom and Bust, 1870s-1930s
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Sex Workers and the Banana Plantations
Key Terms
Selected Readings
Part Three The Call for Change: Twentieth-Century Transformations, 1930-1980
Chapter 7: The Great Depression and Authoritarian Populists, 1930-1950
Global Connections
The End of the Export Boom and Its Consequences, 1929-1935
Mineral-Exporting Nations
Export Agriculture and the Depression
Everyday Life during the Depression, 1930-1940
Depression-Era Dictatorships, 1930-1945
The Dictators
La Matanza in El Salvador
The Good Neighbor Policy and World War II, 1934-1945
The Good Neighbor Policy
The Good Neighbor Policy in Practice
Strategies for Change: ISI and Economic Nationalism, 1935-1960
Light Industry
Brazilian Industrialization
Heavy Industry in Mexico
The Expropriation of the Oil Industry in Mexico: Economic Nationalism
Urbanization and the Emergence of Labor Movements, 1900-1945
The Evolution of the Labor Movement
Industrial Labor in Brazil
Industrial Labor in Argentina
The Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers and the Confederation of Mexican Workers
Gender and Labor in a Chilean Copper Mine
Andean Populism, 1930-1955
Jorge Eliecer Gaitan of Colombia
Populism in Peru and Ecuador
Brazil's Populist: Getulio Vargas, 1930-1945
Vargas Comes to Power
The Estado Novo
Damming the Sao Francisco
The Perons: Argentine Populism, 1945-1955
Peron's Ascension to Power
Evita Peron
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Rafael Leonidas Trujillo and the Parsley Massacre
ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: The Early Tourism Industry in Mexico
Key Terms
Selected Readings
Chapter 8: The Challenges of Modernity, 1930-1950
Global Connections
New Ideas about Race in Latin America, 1920-1935
The Ideas about Mestizaje in Mexico
Indigenismo in Mexico
Indigenismo in Guatemala
Pan-Africanism, Negritude, and New Ideas about Blackness in Latin America
Cultural Nationalism: The Mexican Example, 1920-1955
Artists and the Development of Mexican National Culture
Frida Kahlo: Art and the Importance of Popular Culture
Mass Media: Promoting Revolutionary Mexican Culture, 1935-1960
The Golden Age of Cinema
Comic Books
Mexico's Practical Program to Reform National Culture, 1926-1940
The Campaign against the Church and Its Consequences
Destroying the Hacienda: The Agrarian Reform Program
Indigenismo and Mestizaje in the Andean Nations, 1928-1980
Andean Mestizaje
Andean Indigenismo
Cholas in the Andes
Cholas in the Marketplace
Indigenista Art and Literature in the Andean Region, 1940-1960
Andean Literature
Andean Visual Arts
Land Use in Southern Chile, 1925-1960
Early Efforts to Control Forest Usage
Peasant Protest and Forest Development
New Understandings of Race in Brazil, 1930-1960
Women and the Quest for Equal Voting Rights, 1929-1960
Suffrage in South America
Mexico Belatedly Joins the First Wave of Feminism
Popular Culture and the Spread of Modern Ideas, 1930-1960
The Sources of Cultural Images
Argentina and the Tango
The Brazilian Samba
Son and Rumba in Cuba
ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: The Survival of Handicrafts: The Panama Hat
Key Terms
Selected Readings
Chapter 9: Revolution and Reform in Latin America, 1950-1980
Global Connections
Latin American Follows Mexico's Path to Reform, 1948-1980
The Bolivian National Revolution of 1952
The Venezuelan Democratic Revolution
Jose Figueres and the Costa Rican Revolution
Guatemala's Ten Years of Spring, 1944-1954
Arevalo and Spiritual Socialism
The Arbenz Administration
The Covert Operation in Guatemala
Cuba and the Radical Left Model, 1959-1989
The Batista Regime and Its Overthrow
Fidel Castro and the Early Days of the Cuban Revolution
The Cuban Revolution Enters the Cold War
The Cuban Revolution at Home
Exporting the Cuban Revolution to Africa and Latin America
Aging Populists and Leftist Opposition in the Southern Cone, 1954-1970
The Return of Getulio Vargas in Brazil
Goulart and the Unraveling of the Getulista Coalition
Peron and Peronism: From Exile to Return
The Montoneros and Urban Guerrillas in Argentina and Uruguay
Salvador Allende and Electoral Socialism in Chile, 1970-1973
The Chilean Presidential Election of 1970
Allende's Controversial Policies and Their Consequences
The Coup of September 11, 1973
Latin America's Third Way: Authoritarian Reformers in Peru and Ecuador, 1967-1980
The Peruvian Case
The Ecuadorian Case
The Revolution in Latin American Literature, 1950s-1980s
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: A Pro-Arbenz Agrarian Reform Poster
CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Iconography of Che Guevara
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Bob Marley and Reggae in Latin America
Key Terms
Selected Readings
Chapter 10: Counterrevolution in Latin America, 1960-1980
Global Connections
The Alliance for Progress, 1961-1972
The Creation of the Alliance
The Alliance's Successes and Failures
The National Security Doctrine, 1960-1980
The Workings of the Doctrine
The School of the Americas
A National Security State: Guatemala in the 1960s
Guatemala: 1960-1980
Mexico: From Economic Miracle to the Dirty War, 1950-1964
The Institutional Revolutionary Party and Dominant Party Politics
Early Opposition to the Institutional Revolutionary Party
The Dirty War in Mexico, 1964-1974
Rural Protests
The Tlatelolco Massacre
Argentina, Uruguay, and the Dirty Wars in the Southern Cone, 1970s-1980s
The Dirty War Begins
Victims and Survivors
The Military in Uruguay
The Brazilian Military Dictatorship, 1964-1985
The Lead-Up to the Coup
Dictatorship in the Name of Democracy
Soft and Hard Dictatorship
The Military's Development Program and Its Consequences
The Trans-Amazonian Highway: Threatening the Rainforest Environment
Augusto Pinochet and the Dirty War in Chile, 1973-1990
Pinochet Suppresses the Left and Imposes Order
Pinochet, Neoliberalism and the Chilean Miracle
Economic Collapse, the Recovery, and the Path toward Democracy
Women's Participation in the Pinochet Regime
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Death Comes to a Beauty Queen: Rogelia Cruz Martinez
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Popular Music, Mexican Youth, and the Counterculture Movement
Key Terms
Selected Readings
Chapter 11: The Late Cold War in Latin America, 1970s to 1990
Global Connections
Liberation Theology in Latin America, 1962-1980
The Crisis in the Catholic Church and the Reforms
The Effect of Liberation Theology
The Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua, 1972-1995
The Continuing Somoza Dynasty
The Sandinista Revolution and the Aftermath
The Sandinista Government and Its Opposition
Revolutionary Women in Nicaragua
The Cold War in El Salvador and Guatemala, 1970-1992
El Salvador
The Sustainable Agriculture Movement in Central America
Cuba in the Special Period, 1989-2016
The Economic Effects of the Special Period
Other Changes during the Special Period
The Late Cold War in the Andes, 1960-2016
The FARC and the ELN in Colombia
The Shining Path: The Scourge of Peru
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Latin American Baseball
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Mario Vargas Llosa Contextualizes the Shining Path
Key Terms
Selected Readings
Part Four Old and New Ideas: The Search for a Middle Ground, 1980-2016
Chapter 12: Neoliberalism and Its Discontents, 1980-2015
Global Connections
The Return to Democracy in the Southern Cone, 1975-2015
Argentina's Dirty War Ends
Brazil's Return to Democracy
Civil Society Mobilization and the End of Dictatorship
Chile after Pinochet: Democracy, Economic Growth, and Justice
Bait-and-Switch Populists
Two Established Democracies Rejuvenated
Mexico: The Failure of the PRI, 1982-2000
Vicente Fox and the Fruition of Democracy
Unsettling Circumstances for Venezuela's Democracy, 1970-1998
From the Caracazo to the Breakdown of the Two Parties
The Venezuelan Election of 1998
The Debt Crisis, the IMF, and Neoliberalism, 1975-2000
Rejecting the ISI Model
The Debt Crisis of the 1980s
Neoliberalism and Its Principles
Ecotourism, Conservation, and National Parks
The National Park System in Costa Rica
The Galapagos Islands: From Darwin's Laboratory to Tourist Paradise
The Drug Trade: Poisoning the Andean States, 1970-2000
Producing Coca in Bolivia and Peru
Drug Smuggling: The Medellin and Cali Cartels in Colombia
The New Middle Class and Consumerism
Who Joined the New Middle Class?
New Venues for Middle-Class Consumption: The Shopping Mall
Contemporary Feminist Issues, 1970-2020
Divorce in the Southern Cone Nations
Reproductive Rights
Urban Poverty and the Informal Sector, 1960-2000
Contemporary Ideas about Informal Urbanization
The Environment and Development, 1960-2000
Urban Environmental Issues: Electrification
Brazil's Rolling Brownouts of 2001-2002
Automobile Traffic and Pollution
ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: The Privatization of the Rio Doce Valley Company
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Urban Poverty and the Informal Sector, 1960-2000
Key Terms
Selected Readings
Chapter 13: New Identities, New Politics, 1980-2016
Global Connections
The Rejection of Mestizaje and Racial Democracy, 1980-2000
New Racial and Ethnic Identities in Brazil
Questioning Mestizaje in Latin America
Identity Politics: The Indigenous Movements, 1980-2010
The Zapatista Uprising of 1994 in Mexico
The Ecuadorian Experience
The Indigenous Movements in Bolivia and Peru
The Maya Movement in Guatemala
Identity Politics: Gender, Sexuality, and Women in Politics, 1990-2020
Gender Issues: The LGBTQ+ Movement in Contemporary Latin America
Identity Politics: Religious Pluralism and Pentecostalism, 1980-2020
The Three Waves of the Pentecostal Movement
Why Pentecostalism?
Brazilian Neo-Pentecostalism
The Flood and the Ebb of the Pink Tide, 1999-2020
Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian Revolution, 1999-2020
Criticism Mounts as the Revolution Falters
The Pink Tide in Bolivia, 2005-2019
The Pink Tide in Ecuador, 2006-2017
The Moderate Pink Tide Elsewhere and Its Ebb
The Response of the Pacific Alliance, 2000-2020
Chile and Peru, 2006-2020
Colombia and Mexico, 2000-2020
New Global Players in Latin America, 2003-2020
The China Boom, 2003-2014
Russia and Iran, 2000-2020
General Tenets of Latin America's Environmental Movement, 1980-2020
Ecological Policy Debates in Peru
Popular Cultural Traditions, 1980-2000
New Popular Music Genres
Other Forms of Popular Culture
ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: Otavalan Weaving and Global Entrepreneurship
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Rigoberta Menchu Tum
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Argentina's Naval Mechanics School Museum
Key Terms
Selected Readings
Covid-19 in Latin America
Environmental Issues
Commodities in the Twenty-First Century
Porous Borders and Transnational Crime: Gangs
The Latin Americanization of the United States
Key Terms

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