ISBN : 9780198724568
The 'Gettier Problem' has shaped most of the fundamental debates in epistemology for more than fifty years. Before Edmund Gettier published his famous 1963 paper (reprinted in this volume), it was generally presumed that knowledge was equivalent to true belief supported by adequate evidence. Gettier presented a powerful challenge to that presumption. These led to the development and refinement of many prominent epistemological theories: internalism, externalism, evidentialism, reliabilism, and virtue epistemology. The debate about the appropriate use of intuition as providing evidence in all areas of philosophy began as a debate about the epistemic status of the "Gettier intuition". The differing accounts of epistemic luck are all rooted in responses to the Gettier Problem. The discussions about the role of false beliefs in the production of knowledge are directly traceable to Gettier's paper, as are the debates between fallibilists and infallibilists. The " view was, in large part, provoked by the supposed failure of all solutions to the Gettier Problem. Indeed, it is fair to say that providing a satisfactory response to the Gettier Problem has become a litmus test of any adequate account of knowledge - even those accounts that hold that the Gettier Problem rests on mistakes of various sorts. This volume presents a collective examination by twenty-six experts, including some of the most influential philosophers of our time, of the various issues that arise from Gettier's challenge to the analysis of knowledge. Explaining Knowledge sets the agenda for future work on the central problem of epistemology.
Edmund Gettier: Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?
1 E. J. Coffman: Gettiered Belief
2 Peter D. Klein: The Nature of Knowledge
3 Duncan Pritchard: Knowledge, Luck, and Virtue: Resolving the Gettier Problem
4 Susanna Schellenberg: Perceptual Capacities, Knowledge, and Gettier Cases
5 Robert K. Shope: Chained to the Gettier Problem-a Useful Falsehood?
6 Linda Zagzebski: The Lesson of Gettier
7 Risto Hilpinen: Sed ubi Socrates currit? On the Gettier Problem before Gettier
8 Jonathan L. Kvanvig: Lessons from Gettier
9 Keith Lehrer: Defeasible Reasoning and Representation: The Lesson of Gettier
10 Jonathan Vogel: Accident, Evidence, and Knowledge
11 Jessica Brown: The Gettier Case and Intuition
12 Alvin Goldman: Gettier and the Epistemic Appraisal of Philosophical Intuition
13 Ernest Sosa: The Metaphysical Gettier Problem and the X-Phi Critique
14 Peter Blouw, Wesley Buckwalter, and John Turri: Gettier Cases: A Taxonomy
15 Jonathan M. Weinberg: Knowledge, Noise, and Curve-fitting: A Methodological Argument for JTB?
16 Rodrigo Borges: Inferential Knowledge and the Gettier Conjecture
17 Claudio de Almeida: Knowledge, Benign Falsehoods, and the Gettier Problem
18 Branden Fitelson: Closure, Counter-Closure, and Inferential Knowledge
19 John Hawthorne and Dani Rabinowitz: Knowledge and False Belief
20 Fred Dretske: Golden Gettier: What We (Should Have) Learned
21 Richard Foley: The Value of Knowledge and the Gettier Game
22 Stephen Hetherington: Gettier Cases: Transworld Identity and Counterparts
23 Sherrilyn Roush: The Difference between Knowledge and Understanding