ISBN : 9780194370776
This book develops a rational approach to the teaching of language as communication, based on a careful consideration of the nature of language and of the language user's activities. It will stimulate all language teachers to investigate the ideas that inform their own practice.
Introduction ; 1. Usage and Use ; 1.1 Correctness and appropriacy ; 1.2 Usage and use as aspects of performance ; 1.3 Usage and use in classroom presentation ; 1.4 Aspects of meaning: signification and value ; 1.5 Usage and use in the design of language teaching materials ; 1.6 Selecting areas of use for teaching language ; 1.7 Summary and conclusion ; Notes and references ; 2. Discourse ; 2.1 Sentence, proposition and illocutionary act ; 2.2 Cohesion and propositional development ; 2.3 Coherence and illocutionary development ; 2.4 The relationship between propositional and illocutionary development ; 2.5 Procedures of interpretation ; 2.6 Deriving discourse from sentences: an example ; 2.6.1 Propositional development: achieving cohesion ; 2.6.2 Illocutionary development: achieving coherence ; 2.7 Conventions of coherence ; 2.8 Deriving discourse by arrangement: another example ; 2.9 Summary and conclusion ; Notes and references ; 3. Linguistic skills and communicative abilities ; 3.1 The four skills ; 3.2 Activities associated with spoken language ; 3.3 Activities associated with written language ; 3.4 Reciprocal and non-reciprocal activities ; 3.5 Linguistic skills and communicative abilities ; 3.6 Retrospective and prospective interpretation ; 3.7 Assimilation and discrimination ; 3.8 Non-verbal communication ; 3.9 Summary and conclusion ; Notes and references ; 4. Comprehending and reading ; 4.1 Preview ; 4.2 The reading passage as dependent exemplification ; 4.3 The reading passage as independent 'comprehension piece' ; 4.3.1 Extracts: the problem of authenticity ; 4.3.2 Extracts: the comprehending problem ; 184.108.40.206 Priming glossaries ; 220.127.116.11 Prompting glossaries ; 4.3.3 Simplified versions ; 4.3.4 Simple accounts ; 4.4 Gradual approximation ; 4.5 Comprehension questions: forms and functions ; 4.5.1 Types of question by reference to form ; 4.5.2 Types of question by reference to function ; 18.104.22.168 Usage reference ; 22.214.171.124 Use inference ; 4.6 Other reading exercises ; Notes and references ; 5. Composing and writing ; 5.1 Preview ; 5.2 Types of grammar exercise ; 5.3 Exercises in usage and use ; 5.3.1 Composing sentences in passages ; 5.3.2 Using the contexts of the reading passage ; 5.4 Preparation exercises ; 5.5 Exploitation exercises ; 5.5.1 Gradual approximation: sentence to discourse units ; 5.5.2 Gradual approximation: act to discourse units ; 126.96.36.199 Focus on single illocutionary acts ; 188.8.131.52 Relationships between pairs of acts ; 184.108.40.206 Extension to larger discourse units ; 5.5.3 Rhetorical transformation of discourse units ; 5.5.4 Information transfer ; 5.6 Summary and conclusion ; Notes and references ; 6. Towards an integrated approach ; 6.1 Preview: the need for integration ; 6.2 The discourse to discourse scheme ; 6.3 Types of procedure ; 6.3.1 Demonstration: rhetorical transformation by gradual approximation ; 6.3.2 Demonstration: rhetorical transformation by illocutionary change ; 6.3.3 Demonstration: information transfer ; 6.4 Principles of approach ; 6.4.1 Rational appeal: the use of translation ; 6.4.2 Integration and control ; 6.5 Summary and conclusion ; Notes and references ; Index