ISBN : 9780194371469
This book explores the contemporary phenomenon of English as an international language, and sets out to analyse how and why the language has become so dominant. It looks at the spread of English historically, at the role it plays in Third World countries, and at the ideologies transmitted through the English language.
Acknowledgements ; 1. ELT: Taking stock of a world commodity ; The aims of this book ; English for all? ; Professional and ethical aspects of ELT 'aid' ; Notes ; 2. English, the dominant language ; English in core English-speaking countries ; English in periphery-English countries ; Language promotion ; Opposition to the dominance of English ; Notes ; 3. Linguistic imperialism: theoretical foundations ; A cautionary word on terminology ; A working definition of English linguistic imperialism ; Linguistic imperialism and linguicism ; Cultural imperialism in science, the media, and education ; The State, hegemony, and ELT ; Notes ; 4. Earlier work relevant to linguistic imperialism ; Language spread ; The sociology of language ; Language planning ; Theoretical models of language teaching and learning ; Linguistic human rights ; Two approaches, Wardhaugh and Calvet ; Notes ; 5. The colonial linguistic inheritance ; Their masters' language ; Colonial educational language policy and practice ; The importance of English as a colonial inheritance ; Notes ; 6. British and American promotion of English ; The origins and structure of the British Council ; The British strategy for expanding ELT ; American promotion of English ; Anglo-American collaboration ; Notes ; 7. Creating a profession: the structure and tenets of ELT ; Creating a British academic base for ELT ; ELT and educational language planning for under-developed countries ; Tenet one: English is best taught monolingually ; Tenet two: the ideal teacher of English is a native speaker ; Tenet three: the earlier English is taught, the better the results ; Tenet four: the more English is taught, the better the results ; Tenet five: if other languages are used much, standards of English will drop ; Conclusions: the legacy of Makerere ; Notes ; 8. English language teaching in action ; ELT research ; ELT in 'aid' to education ; - The overall context of ELT 'aid' ; - EFL, ESL or ... ? ; - Principles for the analysis of ELT in 'aid' ; - Postulate 1: political disconnection ; - Postulate 2: narrowly technical training ; - English for special and new purposes ; Notes ; 9. Arguments in linguistic imperialist discourse ; Types of argument and types of power ; English-intrinsic arguments ; English-extrinsic arguments ; English-functional arguments ; The means used to exert linguistic power ; Arguments in language planning for Namibia ; Notes ; 10. Linguistic imperialism and ELT ; ELT: master-minded? ; On the force of the evidence ; Studying ELT and imperialism ; Notes ; Bibliography ; Index